Journal Information

Issn: CN 22-1128/O6

CN:ISSN 1000-0518

Director:Chinese Academy of Sciences

Host:Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences

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Advanced Lithography: Directed Self-Assembly
HU Xiao-Hua, XIONG Shi-Sheng
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (9): 1029-1078.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210278
Abstract3613)      PDF (11532KB)(1409)      
Directed self-assembly (DSA) emerges as one of the most promising novel patterning techniques and has been listed as a candidate for the next generation of lithography by the international roadmap for devices and systems (IRDS). DSA is capable of breaking through the diffraction limit of conventional photolithography, producing high-resolution patterning. Due to the significant advantages such as high throughput and low cost, DSA has become a research hotspot in the semiconductor industry. Combined with other lithographies such as extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, deep ultraviolet (DUV) lithography, ultraviolet lithography, and nanoimprint lithography (NIL), DSA can improve the resolution of the patterning as well as the density of the device. DSA has been employed to fabricate a series of nanoscale devices such as fin field-effect transistor (FinFET), bit patterned media (BPM), and memory, offering varied configurations for high-density integration and cost-efficient manufacturing. This review systematically illustrates the principle, materials, processing, and application of DSA, and further discovers the opportunities and challenges as well in the process of industrialization.
Cited: CSCD(3)
Progress Research on Photosensitive Polyimide
GUO Hai-Quan, YANG Zheng-Hua, GAO Lian-Xun
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (9): 1119-1137.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210274
Abstract3172)      PDF (3669KB)(4065)      
In recent years, photosensitive polyimide (PSPI) has been rapidly developed under the demand of high-tech fields such as advanced packaging technology, microelectromechanical systems, and organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays. The progress of PSPI has attracted widespread attention in terms of basic research, application, and industrialization. Photosensitive polyimide shows an increasingly prominent importance as a practical self-patternable film. This paper reviews the recent research progress in the structural design, photochemical reaction and light-sensitive properties of positive and negative photosensitive polyimides, briefly introduces the application in the field of the integrated circuits, microelectromechanical systems and OLED displays, and finally gives an outlook on the development of photosensitive polyimides in research and applications.
Cited: CSCD(1)
Research Progress on g-Line and i-Line Photoresists
GU Xue-Song, LI Xiao-Ou, LIU Ya-Dong, JI Sheng-Xiang
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (9): 1091-1104.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210265
Abstract2494)      PDF (3477KB)(2675)      
Photoresist is an indispensable basic material in the integrated circuit field. As the increasingly fierce international competition, photoresist is monopolized by United States, Japan and other countries. The localization of photoresist is imminent. This review focuses on g-line (436 nm) and i-line (365 nm) photoresists that are currently used in the market. According to its composition, it is divided into novolak-diazonaphthoquinone(DNQ) photoresist, chemically amplified photoresist, molecular glass photoresist and other types to be summarized separately. Details of the novolak-DNQ photoresist are reported. The exposure mechanism and the effects of photosensitizers and additives on the performance of photoresist are also described. It is expected to provide information and reference for the development of g-line and i-line photoresists.
Cited: CSCD(2)
Review of Perovskite Photovoltaic Cell Encapsulation Material and Technology
Ting WANG, Qi WEI, Qiang FU, Wei LI, Shi-Wei WANG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (9): 1321-1344.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210521
Abstract2357)   HTML108)    PDF (9149KB)(1462)      

As the third generation of new concept solar cells, perovskite solar cells have the advantages of high photoelectric conversion efficiency, low-cost and flexible processing. They have been developed rapidly in recent years. Their photoelectric conversion efficiency has increased from 3.8% at the beginning to 25.5% in the near future. They are gradually comparable to silicon cells and have been close to the level of commercial application. At present, the key link to realize the industrial application of perovskite solar cells is battery packaging. It can not only solve the stability problem of perovskite photovoltaic devices, but also meet the requirements of battery safety, environmental protection and prolonging service life. Combined with the development status of perovskite photovoltaic cell packaging materials and packaging technology in recent ten years, this paper introduces the achievements and shortcomings in the field of perovskite cell packaging, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the existing packaging technologies, as well as their applicable different device types. Under different temperature and humidity conditions, the effects of different packaging material properties and packaging process conditions on the efficiency and stability of perovskite battery are compared, and three key factors affecting the packaging effect of perovskite battery thin film are summarized: elastic modulus of polymer, water vapor transmittance and processing temperature. The suitable processing temperature, advantages and disadvantages and processing cost of different polymer film packaging materials are compared. It can be seen that with the strong growth of industrial demand for perovskite photovoltaic cells and the deepening of people's research on their packaging materials, it will be an inevitable trend to study new functional polymer packaging materials suitable for large-scale production and photovoltaic building integration.

Photolithography of Colloidal Quantum Dots for Display Applications
ZHANG Ping-Ping, YANG Gao-Ling, KANG Guo-Guo, SHI Jian-Bing, ZHONG Hai-Zheng
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (9): 1175-1188.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210156
Abstract1819)      PDF (3011KB)(1702)      
Quantum dot (QD) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are considered as a promising direction for next-generation display applications because of their excellent spectral purity, wide color gamut, and high brightness. However, developing a technology for high-resolution patterning of QDs remains challenging. This paper expounds the latest progress of QDs photolithography technology, including lift-off photolithography and direct photolithography technology. In the direct photolithography technology, we are focusing on the mixed photoresist and ligand engineering photolithography, we also introduce the progress of patterned QDs luminescence layer in photoluminescence and electroluminescence application. Finally, we provide the problems in QDs photolithography and our outlooks for potential future directions in the field of ultra-high resolution display.
Cited: CSCD(2)
Towards Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography: Progress and Challenges of Photoresists
CUI Hao, WANG Qian-Qian, WANG Xiao-Lin, HE Xiang-Ming, XU Hong
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (9): 1154-1167.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210189
Abstract1777)      PDF (2020KB)(2561)      
Lithography enabled nanoscale fabrication in the semiconductor industry; Its resolution and accuracy directly determined the integration, reliability, and cost of integrated circuits. Lithography is a micro-processing technology that uses the solubility switch of photoresists upon the exposure of ultraviolet light or electron beam, to transfer the pre-designed patterns on the mask to the substrate. With the continuous advancement of light sources used in semiconductor processing, from g-line and i-line to KrF (248 nm) and then to ArF (193 nm), the photoresist is also constantly developing to meet requirements of sensitivity, transmittance, and resistance to etching. Nowadays, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography has been recognized as the next generation of photo-lithography technology; however, the corresponding photoresist is still facing substantial challenges. This article will briefly review the development of lithography light sources and the historical changes in corresponding photoresists; and then discuss the challenges, such as sensitivity, resolution, and etching resistance for EUV photoresists. Based on this, the future development direction of EUV photoresists is proposed.
Cited: CSCD(2)
Recent Advances in Direct Oxidation of Methane to Methanol
Ke WANG, Xiao WANG, Shu-Yan SONG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (4): 540-558.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210461
Abstract1771)   HTML79)    PDF (5438KB)(1799)      

The methods for synthesizing methanol from methane include indirect method and direct catalytic oxidation method, but the indirect method requires high equipment, and the methane conversion rate and methanol selectivity are not ideal. Direct catalytic oxidation method (DMTM) can produce methanol with high selectivity through a one-step reaction, and has huge application potential. For DMTM, the homogeneous catalytic system usually requires a special reaction medium combined with a precious metal catalyst. Although the reaction efficiency is high, it is corrosive to the reaction equipment, the product is not easy to separate, and the application prospect is poor. Liquid phase-heterogeneous catalysis generally uses H2O2 as the oxidant, Au, Pd, Fe, Cu and other metal elements as the main active component of the catalyst, and·OH is the main oxidation active substance, which can be used at low temperature to realize the activation and oxidation of methane. Therefore, heterogeneous catalytic systems are currently the mainstream of research. Gas phase-heterogeneous catalysis mainly uses O2 and N2O as oxidants. The former is more active, and the latter is more selective for products. In addition, H2O in anaerobic systems can also be directly used as oxygen donors, commonly Cu, Fe, Rh, etc. elements are used as catalysts. Zeolite molecular sieves are the most widely used support, and metal oxides, metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and graphene are also involved. Multi-metal synergistic catalysis has achieved good results. This article mainly summarizes the research on the direct catalytic oxidation of thermally catalyzed methane to methanol in recent years, and prospects for future research directions.

Research Progress on Chemically Amplified 193 nm Photoresists
LI Xiao-Ou, GU Xue-Song, LIU Ya-Dong, JI Sheng-Xiang
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (9): 1105-1118.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210264
Abstract1495)      PDF (2709KB)(2239)      
There are several platforms for 193 nm photoresists, including chemically/non-chemically amplified photoresists, molecular glass and inorganic-organic hybrid systems. This review mainly focueses on chemically amplified photoresists due to their predominante role in industrial applications. The main components of the 193 nm chemically amplified photoresist include polymer resins, photoacid generators, additives (alkaline additives, dissolution inhibitors, etc.) and solvents. We review the current status of representative 193 nm photoresists and their main components and their advantages, disadvantages and possible development directions are also discussed.
Cited: CSCD(2)
Research Progress on Mechanism and Application of Biomimetic Mineralization
LI Chun, YU Yan-Hao
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (1): 74-85.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210460
Abstract1462)   HTML50)    PDF (3411KB)(1337)      

Biological minerals represented by calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate are elsewhere in nature. Through different biomineralization processes, they present a wide variety of structures, morphologies, and functions, constituting various tissues and organs. In the field of artificial material synthesis, biomineralized inorganic or inorganic/organic hybrid materials with special structures and biological functions could be obtained by regulating the nucleation and growth of mineral crystal, such as calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate. This article focuses on recent research progresses on the mechanisms and applications of biomimetic mineralization, including crystallization theories (e.g., classical and non-classical nucleation theories), crystallization controlling processes (e.g., using inorganic ions, organic small molecules, biological macromolecules, organic polymers), biological applications (e.g., bone tissue engineering, dental enamel restoration, biomimetic enhancement materials, etc.). At last, we provide a brief outlook on the future research direction of biomimetic mineralization. This article serves as a reference for the preparation and application of advanced bionic materials.

Research Progress of Additives for Acid and Water Removal in Electrolyte of Lithium Ion Battery
Lin-Hu SONG, Shi-You LI, Jie WANG, Jing-Jing ZHANG, Ning-Shuang ZHANG, Dong-Ni ZHAO, Fei XU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (5): 697-706.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210129
Abstract1451)   HTML89)    PDF (2413KB)(2504)      

In the application process of commercial lithium-ion battery electrolyte, the electrolyte, lithium salt lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), is prone to hydrolysis in presence of trace water, which can lead to the comprehensive electrochemical performance damage of the battery system. Therefore, it is urgent to control the introduction of trace water in the electrolyte body and measures to reduce the influence of lithium salt and trace water reaction products on the battery system. This article mainly summarizes the characteristics of additives containing different function groups in removing trace amounts of water and acid from electrolytes, and analyzes the function of acid-removing and water-removing. Finally, future research directions as well as application prospects of acid-removing and water-removing additives are prospected.

Synthesis and Applications of Graphene Quantum Dots Derived from Citric Acid
Qiao-Zhi GUO, Zhen-Hua YANG, Yue-Xia ZHANG, Ya-Ting MENG, Yu-Juan CAO, Xuan-Sen SUN, Qi-Qi ZHANG, Shao-Min SHUANG, Chuan DONG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (6): 888-899.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210211
Abstract1368)   HTML61)    PDF (2575KB)(944)      

Graphene quantum dots (GODs) are a kind of novel carbon-based zero-dimensional materials, which can be regarded as extremely small graphene fragments. GQDs possess unique 2D structure, quantum confinement effect and edge effect, which is similar to graphene materials. GQDs have many advantages, such as unique photoluminescence property, low toxicity, high fluorescent stability and high biocompatibility, which result in extensive applications of GQDs, including detection, sensing, catalysis, cellular-imaging, drug delivery and pollution control. The synthesis methods of GQDs could be divided into top-down and bottom-up. The mechanism of the top-down method is cutting large-size materials like graphene, graphite and carbon materials into smaller sizes to obtain GQDs, while the mechanism of the bottom-up method is synthesizing GQDs using different precursors through the hydrothermal method or pyrolysis. Citric acid (CA) is a kind of the most popular precursors used in synthesis of GQDs through the bottom-up method. In the recent years, lots of research related to synthesis of GQDs by using CA as precursors are published. In this study, many CA-based synthesis methods of heterogeneous GQDs and their applications are introduced.

Research Progress on High Resolution Extreme Ultraviolet Photoresist
GAO Jia-Xing, CHEN Long, YU Jia-Ting, GUO Xu-Dong, HU Rui, WANG Shuang-Qing, CHEN Jin-Ping, LI Yi, YANG Guo-Qiang
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (9): 1138-1153.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210221
Abstract1351)      PDF (4690KB)(1841)      
Since the birth of the integrated circuit chip for more than half a century, the chip size has been continuously reduced, and the photolithography technology represented by extreme ultraviolet (EUV) has also developed significantly. At the same time, more advanced photoresist materials are needed to achieve higher precision photolithography patterns. Traditional polymer photoresist materials are limited in their use due to their large relative molecular mass, high-precision stripes and easy collapse. New photoresist materials with small relative molecular mass and uniform structure represented by molecular glass and inorganic metal complex photoresist have been widely developed at home and abroad. This article reviews the current development status and trends of new photoresist materials.
Cited: CSCD(1)
Research Progress of Olefin Polymerization Catalysts
Di XU, Li DAI, Wen-Zhi YAO, Guang-Rui YANG, Hai-Rong WANG, Peng-Fei SONG, Yan-Song ZHU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (3): 355-373.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210170
Abstract1240)   HTML40)    PDF (3605KB)(1554)      

It is a constant pursuit of chemists to get high-performance polyolefin materials. The structure of the olefin polymerization catalyst plays a crucial role on its catalytic performance. Meanwhile, the defects in polyolefin applications highly depend on their structure modifications, e.g. the toughness of polymer can be increased, the friction coefficient of polymer surface can be reduced or the surface energy can be increased by modification. This review summarizes the research progress of metal olefin polymerization catalysts, including Ziegler-Natta catalysts, metallocene catalysts, non-metallocene catalysts and control strategies. The effects of steric hindrance, bimetallic synergism and fluorine effect of these catalysts are discussed.

Cited: CSCD(3)
Research Process on Magneto⁃responsive Liquid Crystalline Elastomers
Shuai ZHANG, Yang YANG, Yan JI, Yen WEI
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (10): 1299-1309.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210316
Abstract1202)      PDF (3918KB)(1071)      

Liquid crystalline elastomers (LCEs) are excellent polymer materials that can respond to external stimuli. By adding various functional materials into LCEs, the composites can respond to various stimuli such as light, electricity and magnetic field, which greatly expand the application range of LCEs. The magnetic response gradually attracts interests due to its characteristics such as remote non-contact control, fast response, good biocompatibility and strong penetrating power. In this paper, the research status and application prospects of magneto-responsive LCEs are discussed.

Cited: CSCD(4)
Artificial Carbon Sequestration Technology—Research Progress on the Catalysts for Thermal Catalytic Reduction of CO 2
Xue-Ting WU, Yang YU, Shu-Yan SONG, Hong-Jie ZHANG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (4): 599-615.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210451
Abstract1183)   HTML56)    PDF (5341KB)(2012)      

Selective hydrogenation has very important applications in the chemical industry such as synthesis of functional materials and purification of chemical products. In recent years, in order to reduce the impact of the greenhouse effect, the selective hydrogenation of CO2 into other valuable chemicals has become a research hotspot. Among them, the thermal catalysis is widely used, easy to obtain a variety of target products and high yield of products. At present, the heterogeneous thermal catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 to produce methane, methanol, light olefins and other high-value fuels and chemicals has made some progresses, but their development is still challenging. The preparation of high-efficiency catalysts is one of the keys. For a long time, researchers have been committed to solving the problem of catalyst activity and selectivity, and modifying the catalysts by doping with additives and adding functional carriers. In response to these problems, this article briefly introduces the background of the catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 and reviews the catalysts used in the heterogeneous thermal catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 into methane, methanol and light olefin products in recent five years. It is expected to provide a reference for the development of new catalysts in the heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation of CO2.

Low pH Induced DNA Conformational Switch Accelerates DNA Disassociation
Lei YAN, Xiu-Hai MAO, Xiao-Lei ZUO
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (5): 837-842.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210257
Abstract1176)   HTML23)    PDF (837KB)(694)      

DNA denaturation by thermal melting is critical for DNA amplification and detection. However, the uneven heat distribution and temperature change hinders its application in DNA amplification and detection. It's highly desired to explore a fast and efficient approach to regulating DNA degeneration. In this paper, we propose to apply acid, instead of thermal melting, to accelerate the DNA denaturation by regulating DNA conformation quickly and precisely via protonation of cytosine. We find that the thermodynamic properties of DNA highly depend on its molecular conformation. Furthermore, compared with traditional thermal method, pH method significantly increases the rate of DNA denaturation by more than 6 times. We further found that the mechanism of the pH control method to improve DNA denaturation by rapidly decreasing the enthalpy of double-stranded DNA (160 kJ/mol), and hope that this method can be used in applications of DNA amplification and detection.

Extreme Ultraviolet Photoresist Inspection Platform in Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility
ZHAO Jun, YANG Shu-Min, XUE Chao-Fan, WU Yan-Qing, CHEN Yi-Fang, TAI Ren-Zhong
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (9): 1168-1174.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210190
Abstract1119)      PDF (1636KB)(980)      
As the next generation of lithography technology, extreme ultraviolet lithography has been given the mission of saving Moore′s law by the industry. Extreme ultraviolet photoresist is one of the core sub-technologies of extreme ultraviolet lithography. The inspection of its resolution, roughness, sensitivity and outgassing conditions is a necessary condition for the development of extreme ultraviolet photoresist and it is also an important part to optimize the resist performance. Extreme ultraviolet interference lithography based on synchrotron radiation is currently the most suitable method for testing the performance of extreme ultraviolet photoresist. According to related research and development needs, an extreme ultraviolet photoresist inspection platform based on this method has been established in Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility(SSRF). By continuously improving the stability of the device, developing independent beam splitting grating mask manufacturing technology, and constantly exploring and optimizing the corresponding interference exposure process, the current inspection resolution has reached below 20 nm, which basically meets the corresponding requirements for the 7 nm process node of extreme ultraviolet lithography.
Research Progress in Detection of Heavy Metal Ions by Electrochemical Analysis
Ming-Yan LIU, Xiu-Ding SHI, Tian-Guo LI, Jing WANG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (4): 463-475.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.220228
Abstract1114)   HTML339)    PDF (1081KB)(1025)      

Heavy metals are difficult to biodegrade and pose a serious threat to the environment and human life and health. Hence, the detection and treatment of heavy metal pollution is vital. In recent years, electrochemical methods for the detection of heavy metal ions have become a research hotspot in the field of heavy metal detection because of their high sensitivity, fast analysis speed and the ability to detect multiple metal ions simultaneously. This paper reviews the detection principles and development status of common electrochemical detection methods, and describes the detection effects of potentiometric analysis, potentiometric stripping analysis and voltammetry by introducing the parameters of linear range, detection limit and recovery. Finally, the review outlines the advantages and disadvantages of various methods, and points out the future research directions in order to provide a basis for the application of electrochemical sensors.

Progress in Chemical Modification and Application of Lignin
Xing-Quan XIONG, Hui ZHANG, Li-Zhu GAO
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (6): 806-819.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.220363
Abstract1103)   HTML44)    PDF (2334KB)(877)      

Lignin is one of the most abundant and significant natural polymeric materials in the world, and its position is only second to cellulose. In woody plants, lignin content accounts for about 25%. Due to its chemical inertness and structural complexity, the application of lignin is very limited. Therefore, the chemical modification of lignin is the key method to transform lignin into functional materials, which is of great significance for the sustainable development of resources and environment. In this review, the research progress on the development of chemical modification of lignin and its applications, including wastewater treatment, heterogeneous catalysis and other aspects, are summarized. Furthermore, discussions on challenges and perspectives in the field of lignin modification are also presented.

Investigation on the Spectral Variation of Typical Organic Phosphorus Compounds under Different pH Conditions Using Solution 31P NMR Spectroscopy
Yu-Hang ZHAO, Chao-Qun HAN, Jin LIU, Xing XIA, Yi-Hao WANG, Jian-Jun YANG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (02): 315-321.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210001
Abstract1095)   HTML24)    PDF (2811KB)(1107)      

Liquid phosphorus-31 (31P) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the major analytical technique for the characterization of soil organic phosphorus (Po) species at the molecular level, and usually requires to extract soil Pousing NaOH-EDTA (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid) solution before the spectrum is collected under high pH (pH=13) conditions. However, soil Pomay be hydrolyzed under high pH conditions, which affects the accuracy of the P-NMR measurements. Furthermore, the pH of soils usually ranges from 6 to 8, and thus it is necessary to explore the differences in the spectra of Pocompounds under different pH conditions. Typical P compounds including D-glucose-6-phosphate disodium (D-G-6-P), 5′-adenosine monophosphate (5′AMP) and sodium dihydrogen phosphate standards were selected for this study under different pH conditions. The results show that the pH change significantly affects spectral features of the investigated Pocompounds. For D-G-6-P, the shape and peak positions of the NMR spectra both change under varied pH conditions, but pH mainly affects the position of 5′AMP and NaH2PO4absorption peaks. D-G-6-P has α-and β-forms in solutions, and transforms into glucose phosphate, mannose phosphate, fructose phosphate and saccharinic acid phosphate, but it mainly exists as 3-hydroxy-2-oxopropyl phosphate and saccharinic acid after degradation, accounting for more than 50% of the total content, at high pH. For 5′-adenosine monophosphate, there are three conformations of 5′AMP in the solution. The resolved peak at high pH probably results from the hydrolysis of 5′AMP to produce orthophosphate, while for NaH2PO4, the existence of and at low and high pH values leads to changes in the peak shift in the spectra. Overall, the extraction of Pousing NaOH-EDTA solution with high pH may significantly change the speciation of Po, and thus induce the changes in their spectra. This study provides theoretical bases for the comprehensive understanding of soil PoNMR spectra and the development of new method to characterize soil Po speciation at pH values approaching natural soil pH ranges.

Research Progress of Holographic Polymer/Liquid Crystal Composites
Dan WANG, Hai-Yan PENG, Xing-Ping ZHOU, Xiao-Lin XIE
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (10): 1268-1298.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210385
Abstract1047)      PDF (21640KB)(743)      

Holographic polymer/liquid crystal (LC) composites are one type of structure ordered composites with the holographic function, which represent the unique capability of reconstructing the whole infomation of coherent lasers by using the periodically arranged polymer-rich and LC-rich phases. According to LC contents and preparation methods, holographic polymer/LC composites comprised holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC), holographic polymer stabilized liquid crystal (HPSLC), and polymer-liquid-crystal-polymer slices (POLICRYPS). This review mainly summarizes the methods to tune the structure and performance of HPDLC in recent 5 years, along with the research progress of HPSLC and POLICRYPS. Applications of holographic polymer/LC composites in high-tech fields such as advanced anti-counterfeiting and augmented reality are also highlighted. Last, research challenges and opportunities are proposed.

Cited: CSCD(6)
Advanced Materials for Lithography
Zi-Li LI, Xing-Ran XU, Jiang-Hao ZHAN, Xiao-Hua HU, Zi-Ying ZHANG, Shi-Sheng XIONG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (6): 859-870.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.220031
Abstract1047)   HTML52)    PDF (2169KB)(1401)      

With the technological development and progresses of the semiconductor industry, chip manufacturing is stepping forward to the advanced technology nodes under the impetus of Moore's Law. Meanwhile, the corresponding advanced materials for lithography are highly desired to satisfy the rapid development of advanced lithographic patterning. This review focuses on the composition and performances of materials for lithography. The photoresist from ultraviolet, deep ultraviolet, and extreme ultraviolet light as well as semiconducting photoresist and materials for directed self-assembly (DSA) are systematically summarized. Subsequently, the current market development and requirement of materials for lithography are critically examined. Finally, after a brief summary, an outlook for the prospective studies on advanced materials for lithography and the corresponding solutions to improve the domestic market occupancy is provided.

Performance of Thermal Conductive High Density Polyethylene Composite
LI Yi, CHENG Hong-Da, YU Yan-Cun, HAN Chang-Yu, CHEN Guang-Jian, ZHU Ying-Nan
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (8): 954-960.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210019
Abstract1044)      PDF (7929KB)(759)      
High-density polyethylene (HDPE)/boron nitride (BN) composites with higher thermal conductivity were prepared by melt blending. Through the study of phase morphology, thermal, rheological and mechanical properties and thermal conductivity, the influence of the BN content on the properties of HDPE/BN composites was discussed. The results show that the BN particles gradually aggregate to form heat conduction channels with the increase of the mass content of BN. When the mass content of BN is increased to 30%, the thermal conductivity of the HDPE/BN composite reaches 1.00 W/(m·K) and is increased by 156% compared with pure HDPE. At the same time, the elastic modulus of the composites is increased by 75%, the cold crystallization temperature increases 1.5 ℃, and the melt viscosity and modulus are increased twice compared to pure HDPE. It is proved that BN not only improves the rheological properties and cold crystallization of HDPE, but also increases the thermal conductivity and elastic modulus.
Cited: CSCD(1)
Protein Sequence Design Using Generative Models
WU Qing-Lin, REN Yu-Bin, ZHAI Xiao-Wei, CHEN Dong, LIU Kai
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (1): 3-17.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210479
Abstract1036)   HTML60)    PDF (3281KB)(1398)      

Protein is the material basis of all livings, which is the main bearer of life activity and participates in the regulation of physiological functions. Designing proteins with specific functions is of great significance in the fields of protein engineering, biomedicine, and material science. Protein sequence design refers to the design and identification of amino acid sequences that can fold into the desired structure with the desired function. Protein sequence design is the core of rational protein engineering and has great potentials for research and application. With the exponential growth of protein sequence data and the rapid development of deep learning technology, generative models are increasingly used in protein sequence design. This review briefly introduces the significance of protein sequence design and the methods developed for protein sequence design. The principles of the four main generative models used for protein sequence design are discussed in detail. Reports on the latest research and application of generative models in protein sequence representation, generation, and optimization over the past several years are presented. Finally, the future developments of protein sequence design are outlooked.

Recent Advances in Liquid Crystal/Polymer Composites and Their Applications in Reverse⁃mode Electrically Switchable Light⁃transmittance Controllable Films
Cheng ZOU, Yan-Zi GAO, Mei-Na YU, Jiu-Mei XIAO, Lan-Ying ZHANG, Huai YANG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (10): 1213-1225.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210373
Abstract1035)      PDF (6084KB)(1129)      

Liquid crystals as the basic materials in modern era of information age have been wildly commercially used in displays. Liquid crystal/polymer composites not only have the advantages of anisotropy and stimulus responsive characteristics similar with liquid crystals, but also have the processibility and cost-effectiveness similar with polymers, which have promising applications in building glass and smart car windows. Besides, the interactions between liquid crystals and polymers will affect the molecular alignment of liquid crystals, meanwhile liquid crystals could also affect the formation direction of polymer networks. Thus a lot of interest has been motivated in the study of liquid crystal/polymer composites. Different types of liquid crystal/polymer composites, their characteristics, applications in light-transmittance controllable films and recent advances in reverse-mode films are reviewed. In the framework, we will make emphasis on the summary of the progress in preparation of reverse-mode light-transmittance controllable films based on liquid crystal/polymer composites. Simultaneously, the challenges and applications of reverse-mode film are also discussed and prospected.

Cited: CSCD(10)
Optimization of Development Process for Carbon Dioxide-Based Poly(cyclohexene carbonate) Electron Beam Resist
LU Xin-Yu, MA Bin-Ze, LUO Hao, QI Huan, LI Qiang, WU Guang-Peng
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (9): 0-0.  
Abstract1022)      PDF (38692KB)(1341)      
Electron beam lithography (EBL) is a promising candidate for the next-generation lithography, which has a significant competitive advantage in micro/nano fabrication, especially in lithography mask manufacturing. Development is one of the most critical steps in the lithography procedure. The development of high-performance photoresists and optimization of the best developing conditions are the basis of improving the efficiency of electron beam lithography. Based on the previous studies on carbon dioxide (CO 2)-based polycarbonate resists, herein, we further explore the positive CO 2-based poly(cyclohexene carbonate) (PCHC) and its electron beam lithography performance according to development process. The effects of development conditions, including developer, developing temperature and time were systematically explored. The optimal developer ( n-hexane), and developing condition (0 ℃/30 s) were screened out, under which, the sensitivity, contrast, and resolution of PCHC are 208 μC/cm 2, 3.06, and 53 nm, respectively. This performance is better than that of the commercial PMMA-950k EBL resist (with a resolution of 62 nm) under the same exposure conditions. We hope this study could provide a new type of electron beam resist with excellent performance and low cost for scientific research institutes and semiconductor fabrication.
Cited: CSCD(2)
Surface‑Coordinated Metal‑Organic Framework Thin Film HKUST‑1 for Optoelectronic Applications
Xue-Xian YANG, Jian ZHANG, Zhi-Gang GU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (7): 1013-1025.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210310
Abstract999)   HTML30)    PDF (8081KB)(1015)      

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as a kind of inorganic-organic hybrid materials have potential applications in many fields due to their diverse structures and unique functionalities. In particular, liquid phase epitaxial layered MOFs films (called SURMOFs films, SURMOFs) have attracted much attention due to their controllable thickness, optimal growth orientation and uniform surface. This article summarizes the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) layers of assembly MOFs thin film technology and methods, such as layer-by-layer (LBL) dipping method, LBL pump method, layer spray method and LBL spin coating method. The article also introduces the classical SURMOF layers of HKUST-1 assembly strategy and its related applications in photoluminescence, photochromic, photocatalytic and electrocatalysis. As one of the classical MOF materials, HKUST-1 has a wide range of applications in photoelectric field, and it has the unique properties: it can be used as a luminous carrier to achieve good optical properties; it has the advantage of unique Cu catalytic active site and can effectively degrade pollutants; it has potential applications in electronic devices because of its dielectric properties. Since SURMOF HKUST-1 has unique properties in many fields, it also faces some challenges: it needs to simplify the process of film synthesis; the structure of thin films and the mechanism of electrocatalysis also need further study; methods for reducing HKUST-1 internal resistance which can increase the conductivity also need to be improved. SURMOFs still has a long way to go for large-scale industrial applications and expansion to other unexplored areas.

Progress of In situ Raman Study on the Dynamic Structure Performance Correlation of Water Splitting Catalysts
Hui-Bing TAO, Zhen TIAN, Yong XIE, Yu SUN, Li WANG, Zhuo KANG, Yue ZHANG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (4): 528-539.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.220001
Abstract992)   HTML50)    PDF (5345KB)(975)      

Electrolyzing water to hydrogen supported by renewable energy is pivotal for achieving the goal of carbon neutrality and the development of a sustainable society in the future. However, catalytic materials often undergo complex structural evolution during the service process of electrolyzing water, which poses a great challenge to in-depth understand the reaction mechanism of the process of electrolyzing water and precise design of high-efficiency catalytic materials. The real-time monitoring of the dynamic evolution process of the catalytic material structure through in situ electrochemical Raman characterization technology is the key to reveal the dynamic structure-activity correlation of the electrolyzed water material as well as the mechanism of the catalytic reaction. This review introduces the basic principles of in situ electrochemical Raman characterization technology, focusing on the latest developments in the phase structure evolution of catalytic materials, surface active sites and the behavior of interfacial water molecules, and considers the change law between the structure and performance evolution for electrolytic water catalytic materials in service, which provides a technical basis for the accurate construction of dynamic structure-activity correlation in the full life cycle of catalytic materials. Lastly, the problems and challenges of in situ electrochemical Raman characterization technology in the application toward electrolytic water are analyzed and summarized, prospecting the future development of advanced in situ electrochemical Raman technology.

4D Printed Liquid Crystal Elastomer Soft Robot and Its Thermal Derived Motion Behavior
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (10): 1389-1396.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210379
Abstract958)      PDF (2799KB)(753)      

Liquid crystal elastomer is a kind of cross-linked polymer network in which anisotropic rigid mesogenic units are connected in the polymer network. Its special structure organically combines the elasticity of rubber with the anisotropy of liquid crystal, resulting in special optical and physical properties. Through the modification of 3D printer based on melting deposition technique the accurate ink direct writing technology of liquid crystal elastomer is realized. In this process, the rigid mesogenic units are directly written into the three-dimensional structure with controllable molecular sequence. The arrangement order of mesogens is set by printing path, and different arrangement order can achieve different stimulus response performance. Based on Michael addition reaction, liquid crystal macromolecular precursor ink was prepared and its rheological properties were adjusted so that it could be extruded with a fine needle with a diameter of 0.25 mm, and the printing samples with regular morphology and highly oriented mesogens were obtained by matching with printing parameters. When heated, the aligned single LCE fiber can achieve more than 40% reversible shrinkage along the printing direction. The structure with controlled geometry and stimulus response can achieve thermal deformation and unlimited thermal motion. In addition to the simple thermal deformation behaviors such as bending, bulge, helix, etc., the printing parameters can be adjusted to achieve flea like jumping, thermal springing and unlimited thermal rolling. This discovery makes 4D printed liquid crystal elastomer samples no longer limited to a simple driver, but a soft robot with intelligent bionic behavior. Through 4D printing mass production software robot can realize intelligent bionics, transportation, exploring unknown environment and other applications.

Cited: CSCD(9)
Biomimetic Flexible Hydrogel Electronics
Sheng-Nan LI, Jun FU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (1): 55-73.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210514
Abstract956)   HTML25)    PDF (9007KB)(1110)      

Hydrogels have tissue-like mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility, and are widely recognized as ideal candidate materials for bioelectronics. Inspired by bio-tissues such as skin, nerves, and muscles, etc., a lot of hydrogels with biomimetic structures and functions have been developed to mimic the capability of creatures to sense external stimuli including temperature, pressure, strain, and electric field, etc. Such biomimetic hydrogels have important applications in electronic skin, artificial muscles, and artificial nerves, etc. This article reviews recent progress of biomimetic flexible hydrogel electronics, including representative hydrogel flexible electronic devices, typical applications, and major challenges in this field. Some open key scientific issue and important directions are outlooked in a brief perspective section at the end.

Cited: CSCD(1)
Photoresist Film-Forming Agent: Development and Future
PENG Xiao-Kang, HUANG Xing-Wen, LIU Rong-Tao, ZHANG Yong-Wen, ZHANG Shi-Yang, LIU Yi-Dong, MIN Yong-Gang
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (9): 1079-1090.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210152
Abstract944)      PDF (3806KB)(1307)      
With the advancement of integrated circuit manufacturing towards 3 nm or 1 nm, photoresist, utilizing as the important consumable for the most complicated lithography process in integrated circuit manufacturing, has become increasingly important and challenging. Photoresist has experienced the development from ultraviolet to deep ultraviolet and then to extreme ultraviolet following the steps of exposure light source. In this review, firstly, the development and application of ultraviolet photoresist and deep ultraviolet photoresist are summarized from the perspective of film-forming agent, and then the performance requirements of extreme ultraviolet photoresist are briefly described. Finally, the molecular glass system utilized in extreme ultraviolet photoresist is introduced and prospected.
Cited: CSCD(3)
Analysis of the Physical Origin of the Red-Shift of Absorption Peaks of Conjugated Polymers in Solution
HUANG Jie-Tao, WANG Da-Peng
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (11): 1486-1493.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210138
Abstract930)      PDF (1065KB)(1211)      
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) was used to measure the hydrodynamic radius ( R H) of two classic conjugated polymers (poly(2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene, MEH-PPV and poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT) in different solvents. It is found that the R H of the two polymers in various solvents is linear with the maximum absorption wavelength ( λ max) for the same polymer. We construct a mixed solvent system using good and bad solvents, and investigate the relationship between R H and λ max for MEH-PPV in a specific solvent mass by regulating the volume fraction of bad solvents. It is investigated that R H and λ max show a linear relationship in the presence of aggregation and conformational collapse. Furthermore, we study the absorption spectra and corresponding R H of MEH-PPV oligomers containing only four repeating units in a tetrahydrofuran-pure water mixture, and the λ max still remains red-shifted with increasing the proportion of non-solvent water. According to the above research work, it can be known that the absorption maximum for conjugated polymers in dilute solution is associated with the hydrodynamic radii of individual fluorophores that can be made of either the single-chain polymer or the polymer aggregate.
Recent Progress of Single⁃Atom Catalytic Materials for Lithium⁃Sulfur Batteries
WANG-Xin, ZHANG-Dong, DU-Fei
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (4): 513-527.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210331
Abstract928)   HTML69)    PDF (5515KB)(1056)      

Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are one of the promising next-generation energy storage technologies due to their high theoretical specific capacity and energy density. However, in practical applications, low conductivity of sulfur and lithium sulfide, dissolution of polysulfides (LIPSs), and poor conversion of LIPSs to Li2S2/Li2S result in the short lifespan and low rate performance of Li-S batteries. Recent studies show that single-atoms (SAs) with superior catalytic activities are ideal anchoring centers and catalytic sites for LIPSs. Modification of cathodes and separators with SAs helps to adsorb polysulfide, improve reaction kinetics and inhibit the shuttle effect. In addition, introduction of SAs into the anode can significantly improve the reversibility of Li deposition/stripping and inhibit the growth of dendrites. In this paper, we review the research progress of SAs in lithium-sulfur batteries, including material synthesis, characterization methods, application direction and catalytic mechanism. Finally, the key challenges and future developmental trends of SAs are summarized and discussed.

Research Progress of Shielding and Shielding Materials of Nuclear Radiation
WANG Lu, ZHAO Meng, CHEN Zhao-Bin
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (12): 1576-1587.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210466
Abstract907)      PDF (758KB)(1629)      
The wide applications and safe utilization make much higher requirements for nuclear radiation shielding and shielding materials. Starting from shielding analysis, this review introduces firstly the types of radiations produced by the nuclear reactor and corresponding shielding mechanisms, following by guiding principles of shielding design. Emphases are then given to new developed shielding materials that have been already applied or have potentials in real applications. Finally, problems and probable research interests in the future are proposed, which is believed to be beneficial for the scientists and researchers in this field.
Recent Developments of Biomimetic Superwetting Materials for High Efficiency Water Collection
ZHOU Hui, GUO Zhi-Guang
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (1): 154-176.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210491
Abstract896)   HTML46)    PDF (15426KB)(385)      

It is an important way to alleviate the crisis of water shortage via effective fog harvesting. In recent years, various biomimetic superwetting materials that can be used for water collection have received widespread attention. Moreover, it can provide guidance for the design and construction of multifunctional biomimetic superwetting materials by further studying the dynamic transportation behavior of droplets in the process of fog collection. In this article, the typical fog harvesting phenomena in nature are systematically summarized. Next, the dynamic transport behavior of droplets on the surface of different materials is further classified. Moreover, the research progress of biomimetic superwetting materials in the application of water collection has been fully discussed from different perspectives. Finally, the research and development of biomimetic superwetting materials that can be used for high-efficiency water collection are prospected.

Morphology Control and Catalytic Dehydrogenation Performance of Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks⁃8
Wang LI
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (7): 1065-1072.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210214
Abstract896)   HTML26)    PDF (1576KB)(1003)      

Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks?8 (ZIF?8) is a kind of porous material with large specific surface area and strong stability, which is widely used in gas storage, separation, catalysis and other fields. In this work, the effect of different reaction conditions, such as the molar ratio of Zn2+ to 2?methylimidazole, the amount of surfactant and the reaction solvents, on the size and morphology of ZIF?8 were reported. Among these conditions, the molar ratio of Zn2+ to 2?methylimidazole is the key factor affecting the size and morphology of ZIF?8. The synthesized ZIF?8 nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, BET and XRD. The size of ZIF?8 decreases gradually from 1500 nm to 850 nm then to 250 nm, and the morphology changes from truncated hexahedron to truncated dodecahedron and finally to dodecahedron. The specific surface area of ZIF?8 nanoparticles with a particle size of 250 nm is 1730 m2/g, and the pore size and pore volume are 1.5 nm and 0.6 cm3/g, respectively. Therefore, it can be seen that ZIF?8 nanoparticles with a particle size of 250 nm have excellent carrier characteristics. The impregnation method was further adopted to synthesize the supported catalyst, and boron ammonia was used as the reducing agent. The ZIF?8 (250 nm)nanoparticles were loaded with metals/precious metal nanoparticles in situ, the component optimization and catalytic performance were further studied. The obtained catalyst ZIF?8/Pt0.002@Ni0.2 shows excellent performance in hydrogen generation from aminoborane.

Development Opportunities and Challenges of Hydrogen Energy
Xing-Guo LI
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (7): 1157-1166.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.220059
Abstract896)   HTML33)    PDF (2820KB)(862)      

This paper firstly briefly explains the development opportunities of hydrogen energy from three aspects of energy resources, CO2 emission reduction and large-scale energy storage. Subsequently, some challenges faced by the development of hydrogen energy are introduced, and they are also the bottleneck of hydrogen energy development. If these problems are not solved, it is difficult for hydrogen energy to be industrialized. Therefore, focusing on hydrogen production, storage and transportation, infrastructure, key equipment, safety and other fields, this paper introduces the research status and the latest trends in the world, further explains some specific problems and technologies, and gives some directions and technical indicators. In addition, some diversified suggestions for the application of hydrogen energy are also put forward and can be used as a reference for industrial development.

Liquid⁃like Dynamic Interfacial Materials: Recent Progress on Their Applications
FAN Yue, TIAN Xue-Lin
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (1): 131-141.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210490
Abstract893)   HTML38)    PDF (6971KB)(949)      

Liquid-like dynamic interface materials, as a sort of emerging liquid-repellent interface materials, have attracted extensive attention due to the advantages of stable exclusion and low hysteresis when liquids with widespread surface tension moving on the surface. The main preparation strategy for liquid-like dynamic interface materials, is to graft a class of flexible polymer brush with low glass transition temperature on the surface. As these molecular chains are free to rotate and move, liquids on the surface exhibit low hysteresis, low adhesion, and high slip possibility. These performances are crucial when practical applications are in consideration. First, micro-nano rough structures are not necessary for liquid-like coatings. Second, there is no lubricant consumption since the nano-scale slippery coating is covalently bonded on the surface. Third, omniphobicity for liquids with widespread surface tension is shown on liquid-like surface. Hence, liquid-like dynamic interface materials have shown broad application prospects. Studies on liquid-like surface range from traditional hydrophobic and oleophobic applications to industrial scenarios such as microscopically lossless liquid transport, condensation heat transfer, anti-scaling, anti-icing and high-performance membrane separation. This paper reviews the recent research progress with emphasis on the emerging applications of liquid-like dynamic interface materials, and their prospects are given.

Research Progress of Rare Earth Bromides Based Solid Electrolytes for All⁃Solid⁃State Batteries
Qi ZHANG, Qian ZHANG, Xiao-Meng SHI, Ya-Qi KONG, Ke-Xin GAO, Ya-Ping DU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (4): 585-598.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210448
Abstract892)   HTML22)    PDF (4795KB)(1371)      

All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries possess excellent safety performance and high energy density, and are expected to be the next generation energy storage devices to replace traditional liquid batteries. Solid-state electrolytes are definitely the key materials to achieve the real all-solid-state batteries. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in halide electrolytes, especially rare earth-containing bromide based solid electrolytes (RE-BSEs), which show good ionic conductivities (up to mS/cm order of magnitude), electrochemical stability (1.5~3.4 V vs.Li+/Li) and so on. In this article, we review the research advances focusing on the possible applications and technical bottlenecks of RE-BSEs. Hopefully, it may be enlightening and spark some inspirations in terms of synthetic strategies, lithium ion transportation mechanism, and investigating methodologies in the study of RE-BSEs. Rare earth is one of the most important strategic resources of China and even for the world. The research and important achievements made on RE-BSEs show the high value potentials of rare earth elements, especially in fields of solid ionics and energy saving and conversions. It is of great significance for structural adjustment of energy economics, and will contribute to the emission peak and carbon neutrality.

Cited: CSCD(1)
Research Progress on Reactive Silicone Flame Retardants
ZHOU Bo-Long, ZHANG Ming-Cong, SHI Ling
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (12): 1556-1575.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210009
Abstract850)      PDF (5785KB)(829)      
Reactive organosilicon is an excellent flame retardant which does not generate harmful substances during combustion. The presence of reactive groups can reduce the adverse effects on the matrix. The progress on silicone, silicon-phosphorus and silicon-phosphorus-nitrogen flame retardants in recent years is discussed. The flame-retardant systems of silicon-phosphorus and silicon-phosphorus-nitrogen are mainly summarized. Finally, the existing problems in the development of flame retardants are pointed out and the future development is prospected.
Cited: CSCD(1)