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Issn: CN 22-1128/O6

CN:ISSN 1000-0518

Director:Chinese Academy of Sciences

Host:Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences

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Nanozyme: A New Type of Biosafety Material
ZHAO Yue, MENG Xiang-Qin, YAN Xi-Yun, FAN Ke-Long
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (5): 524-545.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210174
Abstract3807)      PDF (3692KB)(2750)      
Nanozymes are a kind of nanomaterials with enzyme-like activity. Since they were first discovered in 2007, nearly a thousand kinds of nanomaterials with different compositions have been found to have enzyme-like activity. They exhibit similar enzymatic reaction kinetics and catalytic mechanisms to natural enzymes and can be used as a good substitute for natural enzymes. Due to the enzyme-like activity and the advantages of multifunctionality, economy, stability, and easy to scale production, nanozymes have shown good application prospects in the rapid detection of pathogenic microorganisms and the prevention or treatment of infectious diseases. Therefore, nanozymes are regarded as a new type of biosafety material. This article reviews the application of nanozymes in detecting and killing of bacteria and viruses in recent years, and provides a basis for the development of diagnostic and anti-pathogenic microbial treatment strategies based on nanozyme when responding to major biosafety threats and preventing biosafety hazards.
Cited: CSCD(1)
Advanced Lithography: Directed Self-Assembly
HU Xiao-Hua, XIONG Shi-Sheng
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (9): 1029-1078.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210278
Abstract3286)      PDF (11532KB)(1217)      
Directed self-assembly (DSA) emerges as one of the most promising novel patterning techniques and has been listed as a candidate for the next generation of lithography by the international roadmap for devices and systems (IRDS). DSA is capable of breaking through the diffraction limit of conventional photolithography, producing high-resolution patterning. Due to the significant advantages such as high throughput and low cost, DSA has become a research hotspot in the semiconductor industry. Combined with other lithographies such as extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, deep ultraviolet (DUV) lithography, ultraviolet lithography, and nanoimprint lithography (NIL), DSA can improve the resolution of the patterning as well as the density of the device. DSA has been employed to fabricate a series of nanoscale devices such as fin field-effect transistor (FinFET), bit patterned media (BPM), and memory, offering varied configurations for high-density integration and cost-efficient manufacturing. This review systematically illustrates the principle, materials, processing, and application of DSA, and further discovers the opportunities and challenges as well in the process of industrialization.
Cited: CSCD(3)
Progress Research on Photosensitive Polyimide
GUO Hai-Quan, YANG Zheng-Hua, GAO Lian-Xun
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (9): 1119-1137.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210274
Abstract2764)      PDF (3669KB)(3191)      
In recent years, photosensitive polyimide (PSPI) has been rapidly developed under the demand of high-tech fields such as advanced packaging technology, microelectromechanical systems, and organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays. The progress of PSPI has attracted widespread attention in terms of basic research, application, and industrialization. Photosensitive polyimide shows an increasingly prominent importance as a practical self-patternable film. This paper reviews the recent research progress in the structural design, photochemical reaction and light-sensitive properties of positive and negative photosensitive polyimides, briefly introduces the application in the field of the integrated circuits, microelectromechanical systems and OLED displays, and finally gives an outlook on the development of photosensitive polyimides in research and applications.
Cited: CSCD(1)
Research Progress on g-Line and i-Line Photoresists
GU Xue-Song, LI Xiao-Ou, LIU Ya-Dong, JI Sheng-Xiang
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (9): 1091-1104.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210265
Abstract2077)      PDF (3477KB)(1828)      
Photoresist is an indispensable basic material in the integrated circuit field. As the increasingly fierce international competition, photoresist is monopolized by United States, Japan and other countries. The localization of photoresist is imminent. This review focuses on g-line (436 nm) and i-line (365 nm) photoresists that are currently used in the market. According to its composition, it is divided into novolak-diazonaphthoquinone(DNQ) photoresist, chemically amplified photoresist, molecular glass photoresist and other types to be summarized separately. Details of the novolak-DNQ photoresist are reported. The exposure mechanism and the effects of photosensitizers and additives on the performance of photoresist are also described. It is expected to provide information and reference for the development of g-line and i-line photoresists.
Cited: CSCD(2)
Review of Perovskite Photovoltaic Cell Encapsulation Material and Technology
Ting WANG, Qi WEI, Qiang FU, Wei LI, Shi-Wei WANG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (9): 1321-1344.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210521
Abstract1839)   HTML85)    PDF (9149KB)(1156)      

As the third generation of new concept solar cells, perovskite solar cells have the advantages of high photoelectric conversion efficiency, low-cost and flexible processing. They have been developed rapidly in recent years. Their photoelectric conversion efficiency has increased from 3.8% at the beginning to 25.5% in the near future. They are gradually comparable to silicon cells and have been close to the level of commercial application. At present, the key link to realize the industrial application of perovskite solar cells is battery packaging. It can not only solve the stability problem of perovskite photovoltaic devices, but also meet the requirements of battery safety, environmental protection and prolonging service life. Combined with the development status of perovskite photovoltaic cell packaging materials and packaging technology in recent ten years, this paper introduces the achievements and shortcomings in the field of perovskite cell packaging, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the existing packaging technologies, as well as their applicable different device types. Under different temperature and humidity conditions, the effects of different packaging material properties and packaging process conditions on the efficiency and stability of perovskite battery are compared, and three key factors affecting the packaging effect of perovskite battery thin film are summarized: elastic modulus of polymer, water vapor transmittance and processing temperature. The suitable processing temperature, advantages and disadvantages and processing cost of different polymer film packaging materials are compared. It can be seen that with the strong growth of industrial demand for perovskite photovoltaic cells and the deepening of people's research on their packaging materials, it will be an inevitable trend to study new functional polymer packaging materials suitable for large-scale production and photovoltaic building integration.

Photolithography of Colloidal Quantum Dots for Display Applications
ZHANG Ping-Ping, YANG Gao-Ling, KANG Guo-Guo, SHI Jian-Bing, ZHONG Hai-Zheng
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (9): 1175-1188.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210156
Abstract1625)      PDF (3011KB)(1463)      
Quantum dot (QD) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are considered as a promising direction for next-generation display applications because of their excellent spectral purity, wide color gamut, and high brightness. However, developing a technology for high-resolution patterning of QDs remains challenging. This paper expounds the latest progress of QDs photolithography technology, including lift-off photolithography and direct photolithography technology. In the direct photolithography technology, we are focusing on the mixed photoresist and ligand engineering photolithography, we also introduce the progress of patterned QDs luminescence layer in photoluminescence and electroluminescence application. Finally, we provide the problems in QDs photolithography and our outlooks for potential future directions in the field of ultra-high resolution display.
Cited: CSCD(2)
Towards Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography: Progress and Challenges of Photoresists
CUI Hao, WANG Qian-Qian, WANG Xiao-Lin, HE Xiang-Ming, XU Hong
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (9): 1154-1167.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210189
Abstract1608)      PDF (2020KB)(2227)      
Lithography enabled nanoscale fabrication in the semiconductor industry; Its resolution and accuracy directly determined the integration, reliability, and cost of integrated circuits. Lithography is a micro-processing technology that uses the solubility switch of photoresists upon the exposure of ultraviolet light or electron beam, to transfer the pre-designed patterns on the mask to the substrate. With the continuous advancement of light sources used in semiconductor processing, from g-line and i-line to KrF (248 nm) and then to ArF (193 nm), the photoresist is also constantly developing to meet requirements of sensitivity, transmittance, and resistance to etching. Nowadays, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography has been recognized as the next generation of photo-lithography technology; however, the corresponding photoresist is still facing substantial challenges. This article will briefly review the development of lithography light sources and the historical changes in corresponding photoresists; and then discuss the challenges, such as sensitivity, resolution, and etching resistance for EUV photoresists. Based on this, the future development direction of EUV photoresists is proposed.
Cited: CSCD(2)
Recent Advances in Direct Oxidation of Methane to Methanol
Ke WANG, Xiao WANG, Shu-Yan SONG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (4): 540-558.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210461
Abstract1545)   HTML72)    PDF (5438KB)(1288)      

The methods for synthesizing methanol from methane include indirect method and direct catalytic oxidation method, but the indirect method requires high equipment, and the methane conversion rate and methanol selectivity are not ideal. Direct catalytic oxidation method (DMTM) can produce methanol with high selectivity through a one-step reaction, and has huge application potential. For DMTM, the homogeneous catalytic system usually requires a special reaction medium combined with a precious metal catalyst. Although the reaction efficiency is high, it is corrosive to the reaction equipment, the product is not easy to separate, and the application prospect is poor. Liquid phase-heterogeneous catalysis generally uses H2O2 as the oxidant, Au, Pd, Fe, Cu and other metal elements as the main active component of the catalyst, and·OH is the main oxidation active substance, which can be used at low temperature to realize the activation and oxidation of methane. Therefore, heterogeneous catalytic systems are currently the mainstream of research. Gas phase-heterogeneous catalysis mainly uses O2 and N2O as oxidants. The former is more active, and the latter is more selective for products. In addition, H2O in anaerobic systems can also be directly used as oxygen donors, commonly Cu, Fe, Rh, etc. elements are used as catalysts. Zeolite molecular sieves are the most widely used support, and metal oxides, metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and graphene are also involved. Multi-metal synergistic catalysis has achieved good results. This article mainly summarizes the research on the direct catalytic oxidation of thermally catalyzed methane to methanol in recent years, and prospects for future research directions.

Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxalic Acid Oxidation by Nitric Acid Catalyzed by Mn(Ⅱ)
WANG Yu-Ting, ZHANG Xiao-Teng, LI Xian-Jun, XIA Liang-Shu
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (6): 685-692.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.200320
Abstract1371)      PDF (1095KB)(448)      
A kinetic study on the oxidation of oxalic acid by nitric acid using Mn 2+ as the catalyst was carried out to clarify the reaction mechanism and reaction process, and optimize the process conditions. By investigating the influence of concentrations of oxalic acid and nitric acid on the reaction process, the initial kinetic rate equation of the reaction is obtained: -d c(H 2C 2O 4)/d t= kc 0.7840(H 2C 2O 4) c 0.3192(HNO 3), and the reaction rate constant is k=3.0×10 -3 (mol/L) -0.1032/min at 393 K. The results show that when the Mn 2+ concentration is in the range of 0.008~0.020 mol/L, the reaction order of Mn 2+ is 0.6742 and the increase of concentrations of Mn 2+ and sodium nitrite promotes the initial consumption rate of oxalic acid. On this basis, the possible reaction mechanism is speculated, and it is believed that Mn 2+ promotes the production of nitrous acid, and the secondary oxidation and reduction of nitrite and oxalic acid promote the decomposition of oxalic acid.
Cited: CSCD(1)
Research Progress on Chemically Amplified 193 nm Photoresists
LI Xiao-Ou, GU Xue-Song, LIU Ya-Dong, JI Sheng-Xiang
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (9): 1105-1118.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210264
Abstract1328)      PDF (2709KB)(1756)      
There are several platforms for 193 nm photoresists, including chemically/non-chemically amplified photoresists, molecular glass and inorganic-organic hybrid systems. This review mainly focueses on chemically amplified photoresists due to their predominante role in industrial applications. The main components of the 193 nm chemically amplified photoresist include polymer resins, photoacid generators, additives (alkaline additives, dissolution inhibitors, etc.) and solvents. We review the current status of representative 193 nm photoresists and their main components and their advantages, disadvantages and possible development directions are also discussed.
Cited: CSCD(2)
Research Progress on Mechanism and Application of Biomimetic Mineralization
LI Chun, YU Yan-Hao
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (1): 74-85.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210460
Abstract1258)   HTML39)    PDF (3411KB)(1063)      

Biological minerals represented by calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate are elsewhere in nature. Through different biomineralization processes, they present a wide variety of structures, morphologies, and functions, constituting various tissues and organs. In the field of artificial material synthesis, biomineralized inorganic or inorganic/organic hybrid materials with special structures and biological functions could be obtained by regulating the nucleation and growth of mineral crystal, such as calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate. This article focuses on recent research progresses on the mechanisms and applications of biomimetic mineralization, including crystallization theories (e.g., classical and non-classical nucleation theories), crystallization controlling processes (e.g., using inorganic ions, organic small molecules, biological macromolecules, organic polymers), biological applications (e.g., bone tissue engineering, dental enamel restoration, biomimetic enhancement materials, etc.). At last, we provide a brief outlook on the future research direction of biomimetic mineralization. This article serves as a reference for the preparation and application of advanced bionic materials.

Research Progress of Additives for Acid and Water Removal in Electrolyte of Lithium Ion Battery
Lin-Hu SONG, Shi-You LI, Jie WANG, Jing-Jing ZHANG, Ning-Shuang ZHANG, Dong-Ni ZHAO, Fei XU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (5): 697-706.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210129
Abstract1233)   HTML81)    PDF (2413KB)(2113)      

In the application process of commercial lithium-ion battery electrolyte, the electrolyte, lithium salt lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), is prone to hydrolysis in presence of trace water, which can lead to the comprehensive electrochemical performance damage of the battery system. Therefore, it is urgent to control the introduction of trace water in the electrolyte body and measures to reduce the influence of lithium salt and trace water reaction products on the battery system. This article mainly summarizes the characteristics of additives containing different function groups in removing trace amounts of water and acid from electrolytes, and analyzes the function of acid-removing and water-removing. Finally, future research directions as well as application prospects of acid-removing and water-removing additives are prospected.

Directed Evolution for Catalytic Activity of Formate Dehydrogenase and Its Overexpression
ZHANG Zhen-Hua, XIE Yu-Li, WANG Tie-Jun, ZHAO Hong, TANG Cun-Duo, KAN Yun-Chao, YAO Lun-Guang
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (6): 704-712.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.200271
Abstract1169)      PDF (10162KB)(934)      
Formate dehydrogenase (FDH) is a D-2-hydroxy acid dehydrogenase, and catalyzes the oxidation of formate to carbon dioxide, coupled with reduction of NAD +(oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)) to NADH (reduced NAD) that plays a key role in the process of NADH regeneration. In order to obtain highly active formate dehydrogenase mutants, the Candida boidinii formate dehydrogenase CbFDH C23S was used as the parent to conduct two rounds of directional evolution, and a mutant M2 was obtained. The specific activity of M2 is about 4 times more than the parent and M2 and is more suitable for coenzyme regeneration under physiological conditions. Then, the molecular mechanism of the temperature characteristic and the catalytic efficiency change was preliminarily elucidated by the computer aided method. Finally, with the help of the co-expression strategy, the expression level of mutant M2 in Escherichia coli is further improved, and the formate dehydrogenase activity in the ultrasonic lysate reaches 45.85 U/mL, which is far higher than the expression level of the parent single copy. This study laid a theoretical foundation for the green biosynthesis of food additives such as chiral alcohols and amino acid derivatives catalyzed by FDH coupling to enhance the regeneration capacity of NADH, reduce the regeneration cost of NADH, and achieve high efficiency and low cost.
Research Progress on High Resolution Extreme Ultraviolet Photoresist
GAO Jia-Xing, CHEN Long, YU Jia-Ting, GUO Xu-Dong, HU Rui, WANG Shuang-Qing, CHEN Jin-Ping, LI Yi, YANG Guo-Qiang
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (9): 1138-1153.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210221
Abstract1157)      PDF (4690KB)(1575)      
Since the birth of the integrated circuit chip for more than half a century, the chip size has been continuously reduced, and the photolithography technology represented by extreme ultraviolet (EUV) has also developed significantly. At the same time, more advanced photoresist materials are needed to achieve higher precision photolithography patterns. Traditional polymer photoresist materials are limited in their use due to their large relative molecular mass, high-precision stripes and easy collapse. New photoresist materials with small relative molecular mass and uniform structure represented by molecular glass and inorganic metal complex photoresist have been widely developed at home and abroad. This article reviews the current development status and trends of new photoresist materials.
Cited: CSCD(1)
Synthesis and Applications of Graphene Quantum Dots Derived from Citric Acid
Qiao-Zhi GUO, Zhen-Hua YANG, Yue-Xia ZHANG, Ya-Ting MENG, Yu-Juan CAO, Xuan-Sen SUN, Qi-Qi ZHANG, Shao-Min SHUANG, Chuan DONG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (6): 888-899.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210211
Abstract1114)   HTML47)    PDF (2575KB)(755)      

Graphene quantum dots (GODs) are a kind of novel carbon-based zero-dimensional materials, which can be regarded as extremely small graphene fragments. GQDs possess unique 2D structure, quantum confinement effect and edge effect, which is similar to graphene materials. GQDs have many advantages, such as unique photoluminescence property, low toxicity, high fluorescent stability and high biocompatibility, which result in extensive applications of GQDs, including detection, sensing, catalysis, cellular-imaging, drug delivery and pollution control. The synthesis methods of GQDs could be divided into top-down and bottom-up. The mechanism of the top-down method is cutting large-size materials like graphene, graphite and carbon materials into smaller sizes to obtain GQDs, while the mechanism of the bottom-up method is synthesizing GQDs using different precursors through the hydrothermal method or pyrolysis. Citric acid (CA) is a kind of the most popular precursors used in synthesis of GQDs through the bottom-up method. In the recent years, lots of research related to synthesis of GQDs by using CA as precursors are published. In this study, many CA-based synthesis methods of heterogeneous GQDs and their applications are introduced.

Extreme Ultraviolet Photoresist Inspection Platform in Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility
ZHAO Jun, YANG Shu-Min, XUE Chao-Fan, WU Yan-Qing, CHEN Yi-Fang, TAI Ren-Zhong
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (9): 1168-1174.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210190
Abstract1018)      PDF (1636KB)(783)      
As the next generation of lithography technology, extreme ultraviolet lithography has been given the mission of saving Moore′s law by the industry. Extreme ultraviolet photoresist is one of the core sub-technologies of extreme ultraviolet lithography. The inspection of its resolution, roughness, sensitivity and outgassing conditions is a necessary condition for the development of extreme ultraviolet photoresist and it is also an important part to optimize the resist performance. Extreme ultraviolet interference lithography based on synchrotron radiation is currently the most suitable method for testing the performance of extreme ultraviolet photoresist. According to related research and development needs, an extreme ultraviolet photoresist inspection platform based on this method has been established in Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility(SSRF). By continuously improving the stability of the device, developing independent beam splitting grating mask manufacturing technology, and constantly exploring and optimizing the corresponding interference exposure process, the current inspection resolution has reached below 20 nm, which basically meets the corresponding requirements for the 7 nm process node of extreme ultraviolet lithography.
Research Process on Magneto⁃responsive Liquid Crystalline Elastomers
Shuai ZHANG, Yang YANG, Yan JI, Yen WEI
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (10): 1299-1309.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210316
Abstract1015)      PDF (3918KB)(904)      

Liquid crystalline elastomers (LCEs) are excellent polymer materials that can respond to external stimuli. By adding various functional materials into LCEs, the composites can respond to various stimuli such as light, electricity and magnetic field, which greatly expand the application range of LCEs. The magnetic response gradually attracts interests due to its characteristics such as remote non-contact control, fast response, good biocompatibility and strong penetrating power. In this paper, the research status and application prospects of magneto-responsive LCEs are discussed.

Cited: CSCD(4)
Research Progress of Olefin Polymerization Catalysts
Di XU, Li DAI, Wen-Zhi YAO, Guang-Rui YANG, Hai-Rong WANG, Peng-Fei SONG, Yan-Song ZHU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (3): 355-373.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210170
Abstract1000)   HTML35)    PDF (3605KB)(1205)      

It is a constant pursuit of chemists to get high-performance polyolefin materials. The structure of the olefin polymerization catalyst plays a crucial role on its catalytic performance. Meanwhile, the defects in polyolefin applications highly depend on their structure modifications, e.g. the toughness of polymer can be increased, the friction coefficient of polymer surface can be reduced or the surface energy can be increased by modification. This review summarizes the research progress of metal olefin polymerization catalysts, including Ziegler-Natta catalysts, metallocene catalysts, non-metallocene catalysts and control strategies. The effects of steric hindrance, bimetallic synergism and fluorine effect of these catalysts are discussed.

Cited: CSCD(3)
Performance of Thermal Conductive High Density Polyethylene Composite
LI Yi, CHENG Hong-Da, YU Yan-Cun, HAN Chang-Yu, CHEN Guang-Jian, ZHU Ying-Nan
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (8): 954-960.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210019
Abstract960)      PDF (7929KB)(561)      
High-density polyethylene (HDPE)/boron nitride (BN) composites with higher thermal conductivity were prepared by melt blending. Through the study of phase morphology, thermal, rheological and mechanical properties and thermal conductivity, the influence of the BN content on the properties of HDPE/BN composites was discussed. The results show that the BN particles gradually aggregate to form heat conduction channels with the increase of the mass content of BN. When the mass content of BN is increased to 30%, the thermal conductivity of the HDPE/BN composite reaches 1.00 W/(m·K) and is increased by 156% compared with pure HDPE. At the same time, the elastic modulus of the composites is increased by 75%, the cold crystallization temperature increases 1.5 ℃, and the melt viscosity and modulus are increased twice compared to pure HDPE. It is proved that BN not only improves the rheological properties and cold crystallization of HDPE, but also increases the thermal conductivity and elastic modulus.
Cited: CSCD(1)
Optimization of Development Process for Carbon Dioxide-Based Poly(cyclohexene carbonate) Electron Beam Resist
LU Xin-Yu, MA Bin-Ze, LUO Hao, QI Huan, LI Qiang, WU Guang-Peng
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (9): 0-0.  
Abstract958)      PDF (38692KB)(1288)      
Electron beam lithography (EBL) is a promising candidate for the next-generation lithography, which has a significant competitive advantage in micro/nano fabrication, especially in lithography mask manufacturing. Development is one of the most critical steps in the lithography procedure. The development of high-performance photoresists and optimization of the best developing conditions are the basis of improving the efficiency of electron beam lithography. Based on the previous studies on carbon dioxide (CO 2)-based polycarbonate resists, herein, we further explore the positive CO 2-based poly(cyclohexene carbonate) (PCHC) and its electron beam lithography performance according to development process. The effects of development conditions, including developer, developing temperature and time were systematically explored. The optimal developer ( n-hexane), and developing condition (0 ℃/30 s) were screened out, under which, the sensitivity, contrast, and resolution of PCHC are 208 μC/cm 2, 3.06, and 53 nm, respectively. This performance is better than that of the commercial PMMA-950k EBL resist (with a resolution of 62 nm) under the same exposure conditions. We hope this study could provide a new type of electron beam resist with excellent performance and low cost for scientific research institutes and semiconductor fabrication.
Cited: CSCD(2)
Low pH Induced DNA Conformational Switch Accelerates DNA Disassociation
Lei YAN, Xiu-Hai MAO, Xiao-Lei ZUO
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (5): 837-842.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210257
Abstract957)   HTML16)    PDF (837KB)(560)      

DNA denaturation by thermal melting is critical for DNA amplification and detection. However, the uneven heat distribution and temperature change hinders its application in DNA amplification and detection. It's highly desired to explore a fast and efficient approach to regulating DNA degeneration. In this paper, we propose to apply acid, instead of thermal melting, to accelerate the DNA denaturation by regulating DNA conformation quickly and precisely via protonation of cytosine. We find that the thermodynamic properties of DNA highly depend on its molecular conformation. Furthermore, compared with traditional thermal method, pH method significantly increases the rate of DNA denaturation by more than 6 times. We further found that the mechanism of the pH control method to improve DNA denaturation by rapidly decreasing the enthalpy of double-stranded DNA (160 kJ/mol), and hope that this method can be used in applications of DNA amplification and detection.

Research Progress on Responsive Hydrogels and Their Applications in Biomedicines
TANG Li-Zong, ZHANG Lin, DONG Yun-Sheng, QI Chun-Xiao, LIU Xiang-Sheng, WANG Shu-Fang
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (7): 743-753.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.200364
Abstract953)      PDF (2116KB)(1197)      
Responsive hydrogels, also known as “smart hydrogels”, can be modified in different ways to respond to physical and chemical stimuli and microenvironment changes. Nowadays, responsive hydrogels have been widely used in biomedical fields, such as pH responsive hydrogel loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) for cancer treatment, temperature responsive hydrogels made from 3D printing for wound healing, glucose responsive hydrogels for diabetes treatment, etc. In this paper, we introduce the current research of responsive hydrogel, including the preparation and modification methods, applications in biomedicine and the future directions.
Cited: CSCD(1)
Biosafety Materials for Bioterrorism Attacks and Biological Warfare
CUI Min-Hui, ZHOU Hui-Ling, TANG Dong-Sheng, XIAO Hai-Hua
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (5): 467-481.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210074
Abstract952)      PDF (3553KB)(773)      
Bioterrorism attacks and biological warfare are major threats to the world today. Once it happens, they will not only do great harm to human beings, animals and plants, but also cause social unrest and economic losses. Biosafety materials provide with important defense to ensure biosafety, which provides methods for biosafety protection. The development of biosafety materials, which can be used to efficiently detect, eliminate and block the microorganisms that can lead to biological weapons, is an indispensable means to deal with bioterrorism attacks and biological warfare in the future. In this paper, we reviewed the common microorganisms used in the preparation of biological weapons. According to the types of microorganisms, the reported biosafety materials for bioterrorism attacks and biological warfare are summarized, and the prospects are put forward at the end of the paper.
Cited: CSCD(1)
Recent Advances in Liquid Crystal/Polymer Composites and Their Applications in Reverse⁃mode Electrically Switchable Light⁃transmittance Controllable Films
Cheng ZOU, Yan-Zi GAO, Mei-Na YU, Jiu-Mei XIAO, Lan-Ying ZHANG, Huai YANG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (10): 1213-1225.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210373
Abstract938)      PDF (6084KB)(1008)      

Liquid crystals as the basic materials in modern era of information age have been wildly commercially used in displays. Liquid crystal/polymer composites not only have the advantages of anisotropy and stimulus responsive characteristics similar with liquid crystals, but also have the processibility and cost-effectiveness similar with polymers, which have promising applications in building glass and smart car windows. Besides, the interactions between liquid crystals and polymers will affect the molecular alignment of liquid crystals, meanwhile liquid crystals could also affect the formation direction of polymer networks. Thus a lot of interest has been motivated in the study of liquid crystal/polymer composites. Different types of liquid crystal/polymer composites, their characteristics, applications in light-transmittance controllable films and recent advances in reverse-mode films are reviewed. In the framework, we will make emphasis on the summary of the progress in preparation of reverse-mode light-transmittance controllable films based on liquid crystal/polymer composites. Simultaneously, the challenges and applications of reverse-mode film are also discussed and prospected.

Cited: CSCD(10)
Protein Sequence Design Using Generative Models
WU Qing-Lin, REN Yu-Bin, ZHAI Xiao-Wei, CHEN Dong, LIU Kai
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (1): 3-17.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210479
Abstract914)   HTML53)    PDF (3281KB)(1131)      

Protein is the material basis of all livings, which is the main bearer of life activity and participates in the regulation of physiological functions. Designing proteins with specific functions is of great significance in the fields of protein engineering, biomedicine, and material science. Protein sequence design refers to the design and identification of amino acid sequences that can fold into the desired structure with the desired function. Protein sequence design is the core of rational protein engineering and has great potentials for research and application. With the exponential growth of protein sequence data and the rapid development of deep learning technology, generative models are increasingly used in protein sequence design. This review briefly introduces the significance of protein sequence design and the methods developed for protein sequence design. The principles of the four main generative models used for protein sequence design are discussed in detail. Reports on the latest research and application of generative models in protein sequence representation, generation, and optimization over the past several years are presented. Finally, the future developments of protein sequence design are outlooked.

Advanced Materials for Lithography
Zi-Li LI, Xing-Ran XU, Jiang-Hao ZHAN, Xiao-Hua HU, Zi-Ying ZHANG, Shi-Sheng XIONG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (6): 859-870.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.220031
Abstract911)   HTML49)    PDF (2169KB)(1097)      

With the technological development and progresses of the semiconductor industry, chip manufacturing is stepping forward to the advanced technology nodes under the impetus of Moore's Law. Meanwhile, the corresponding advanced materials for lithography are highly desired to satisfy the rapid development of advanced lithographic patterning. This review focuses on the composition and performances of materials for lithography. The photoresist from ultraviolet, deep ultraviolet, and extreme ultraviolet light as well as semiconducting photoresist and materials for directed self-assembly (DSA) are systematically summarized. Subsequently, the current market development and requirement of materials for lithography are critically examined. Finally, after a brief summary, an outlook for the prospective studies on advanced materials for lithography and the corresponding solutions to improve the domestic market occupancy is provided.

Research Progress on Synthesis of Coal-based Carbon Quantum Dots
BO Chun-Hui, JIANG Wei-Jia, WANG Yu-Gao, SHI Li-Hong, DONG Chuan
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (7): 767-788.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.200343
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A variety of nanomaterials have been discovered with the emergence and development of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Carbon quantum dots (CQDS) attract the attention of many researchers because of their unique and excellent properties. Carbon sources have an important impact on the synthesis and properties of carbon quantum dots. Coal and coal derivatives are rich in aromatic ring structures and suitable for the preparation of carbon quantum dots in the view of microstructures. In this paper, the research progress of the synthesis of carbon quantum dots from coal (called coal based carbon quantum dots) and its derivatives by chemical oxidation, ultrasonic and electrochemical oxidation is reviewed. The advantages of coal and its derivatives as raw materials are described, the characteristics of different preparation methods are compared and analyzed, and the properties of coal based carbon quantum dots are briefly introduced. Finally, the prospects of controllable preparation of coal based carbon quantum dots are proposed.
Investigation on the Spectral Variation of Typical Organic Phosphorus Compounds under Different pH Conditions Using Solution 31P NMR Spectroscopy
Yu-Hang ZHAO, Chao-Qun HAN, Jin LIU, Xing XIA, Yi-Hao WANG, Jian-Jun YANG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (02): 315-321.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210001
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Liquid phosphorus-31 (31P) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the major analytical technique for the characterization of soil organic phosphorus (Po) species at the molecular level, and usually requires to extract soil Pousing NaOH-EDTA (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid) solution before the spectrum is collected under high pH (pH=13) conditions. However, soil Pomay be hydrolyzed under high pH conditions, which affects the accuracy of the P-NMR measurements. Furthermore, the pH of soils usually ranges from 6 to 8, and thus it is necessary to explore the differences in the spectra of Pocompounds under different pH conditions. Typical P compounds including D-glucose-6-phosphate disodium (D-G-6-P), 5′-adenosine monophosphate (5′AMP) and sodium dihydrogen phosphate standards were selected for this study under different pH conditions. The results show that the pH change significantly affects spectral features of the investigated Pocompounds. For D-G-6-P, the shape and peak positions of the NMR spectra both change under varied pH conditions, but pH mainly affects the position of 5′AMP and NaH2PO4absorption peaks. D-G-6-P has α-and β-forms in solutions, and transforms into glucose phosphate, mannose phosphate, fructose phosphate and saccharinic acid phosphate, but it mainly exists as 3-hydroxy-2-oxopropyl phosphate and saccharinic acid after degradation, accounting for more than 50% of the total content, at high pH. For 5′-adenosine monophosphate, there are three conformations of 5′AMP in the solution. The resolved peak at high pH probably results from the hydrolysis of 5′AMP to produce orthophosphate, while for NaH2PO4, the existence of and at low and high pH values leads to changes in the peak shift in the spectra. Overall, the extraction of Pousing NaOH-EDTA solution with high pH may significantly change the speciation of Po, and thus induce the changes in their spectra. This study provides theoretical bases for the comprehensive understanding of soil PoNMR spectra and the development of new method to characterize soil Po speciation at pH values approaching natural soil pH ranges.

Research Progress of Holographic Polymer/Liquid Crystal Composites
Dan WANG, Hai-Yan PENG, Xing-Ping ZHOU, Xiao-Lin XIE
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (10): 1268-1298.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210385
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Holographic polymer/liquid crystal (LC) composites are one type of structure ordered composites with the holographic function, which represent the unique capability of reconstructing the whole infomation of coherent lasers by using the periodically arranged polymer-rich and LC-rich phases. According to LC contents and preparation methods, holographic polymer/LC composites comprised holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC), holographic polymer stabilized liquid crystal (HPSLC), and polymer-liquid-crystal-polymer slices (POLICRYPS). This review mainly summarizes the methods to tune the structure and performance of HPDLC in recent 5 years, along with the research progress of HPSLC and POLICRYPS. Applications of holographic polymer/LC composites in high-tech fields such as advanced anti-counterfeiting and augmented reality are also highlighted. Last, research challenges and opportunities are proposed.

Cited: CSCD(6)
Photoresist Film-Forming Agent: Development and Future
PENG Xiao-Kang, HUANG Xing-Wen, LIU Rong-Tao, ZHANG Yong-Wen, ZHANG Shi-Yang, LIU Yi-Dong, MIN Yong-Gang
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (9): 1079-1090.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210152
Abstract873)      PDF (3806KB)(1048)      
With the advancement of integrated circuit manufacturing towards 3 nm or 1 nm, photoresist, utilizing as the important consumable for the most complicated lithography process in integrated circuit manufacturing, has become increasingly important and challenging. Photoresist has experienced the development from ultraviolet to deep ultraviolet and then to extreme ultraviolet following the steps of exposure light source. In this review, firstly, the development and application of ultraviolet photoresist and deep ultraviolet photoresist are summarized from the perspective of film-forming agent, and then the performance requirements of extreme ultraviolet photoresist are briefly described. Finally, the molecular glass system utilized in extreme ultraviolet photoresist is introduced and prospected.
Cited: CSCD(3)
Research Progresses of Nucleic Acid Based Detection of Pathogenic Microorganisms
LI Zi-Yue, YANG Tong-Ren, YANG Ge, HUANG Yuan-Yu
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (5): 592-604.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210099
Abstract863)      PDF (1935KB)(850)      
In December 2019, the global outbreak of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)made biosafety an attractive and crucial development direction globally. Rapid, accurate and low-cost detection of pathogenic microorganisms is one of the important issue to ensure biosafety, and is the key to epidemic prevention, control and diagnosis. This review elaborately introduces the applications of biosensors based on nucleic acid sequencing, isothermal amplification and gene editing (CRISPR/Cas) in integrated portable devices. The development of these technologies offers the possibility of developing “low-cost, high-efficiency and result-visualization” integrated detection methods. It is expected to provide technology guarantees for the effective prevention and control of pathogenic microorganisms.
4D Printed Liquid Crystal Elastomer Soft Robot and Its Thermal Derived Motion Behavior
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (10): 1389-1396.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210379
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Liquid crystal elastomer is a kind of cross-linked polymer network in which anisotropic rigid mesogenic units are connected in the polymer network. Its special structure organically combines the elasticity of rubber with the anisotropy of liquid crystal, resulting in special optical and physical properties. Through the modification of 3D printer based on melting deposition technique the accurate ink direct writing technology of liquid crystal elastomer is realized. In this process, the rigid mesogenic units are directly written into the three-dimensional structure with controllable molecular sequence. The arrangement order of mesogens is set by printing path, and different arrangement order can achieve different stimulus response performance. Based on Michael addition reaction, liquid crystal macromolecular precursor ink was prepared and its rheological properties were adjusted so that it could be extruded with a fine needle with a diameter of 0.25 mm, and the printing samples with regular morphology and highly oriented mesogens were obtained by matching with printing parameters. When heated, the aligned single LCE fiber can achieve more than 40% reversible shrinkage along the printing direction. The structure with controlled geometry and stimulus response can achieve thermal deformation and unlimited thermal motion. In addition to the simple thermal deformation behaviors such as bending, bulge, helix, etc., the printing parameters can be adjusted to achieve flea like jumping, thermal springing and unlimited thermal rolling. This discovery makes 4D printed liquid crystal elastomer samples no longer limited to a simple driver, but a soft robot with intelligent bionic behavior. Through 4D printing mass production software robot can realize intelligent bionics, transportation, exploring unknown environment and other applications.

Cited: CSCD(9)
Biomimetic Flexible Hydrogel Electronics
Sheng-Nan LI, Jun FU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (1): 55-73.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210514
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Hydrogels have tissue-like mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility, and are widely recognized as ideal candidate materials for bioelectronics. Inspired by bio-tissues such as skin, nerves, and muscles, etc., a lot of hydrogels with biomimetic structures and functions have been developed to mimic the capability of creatures to sense external stimuli including temperature, pressure, strain, and electric field, etc. Such biomimetic hydrogels have important applications in electronic skin, artificial muscles, and artificial nerves, etc. This article reviews recent progress of biomimetic flexible hydrogel electronics, including representative hydrogel flexible electronic devices, typical applications, and major challenges in this field. Some open key scientific issue and important directions are outlooked in a brief perspective section at the end.

Cited: CSCD(1)
Surface‑Coordinated Metal‑Organic Framework Thin Film HKUST‑1 for Optoelectronic Applications
Xue-Xian YANG, Jian ZHANG, Zhi-Gang GU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (7): 1013-1025.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210310
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Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as a kind of inorganic-organic hybrid materials have potential applications in many fields due to their diverse structures and unique functionalities. In particular, liquid phase epitaxial layered MOFs films (called SURMOFs films, SURMOFs) have attracted much attention due to their controllable thickness, optimal growth orientation and uniform surface. This article summarizes the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) layers of assembly MOFs thin film technology and methods, such as layer-by-layer (LBL) dipping method, LBL pump method, layer spray method and LBL spin coating method. The article also introduces the classical SURMOF layers of HKUST-1 assembly strategy and its related applications in photoluminescence, photochromic, photocatalytic and electrocatalysis. As one of the classical MOF materials, HKUST-1 has a wide range of applications in photoelectric field, and it has the unique properties: it can be used as a luminous carrier to achieve good optical properties; it has the advantage of unique Cu catalytic active site and can effectively degrade pollutants; it has potential applications in electronic devices because of its dielectric properties. Since SURMOF HKUST-1 has unique properties in many fields, it also faces some challenges: it needs to simplify the process of film synthesis; the structure of thin films and the mechanism of electrocatalysis also need further study; methods for reducing HKUST-1 internal resistance which can increase the conductivity also need to be improved. SURMOFs still has a long way to go for large-scale industrial applications and expansion to other unexplored areas.

Analysis of the Physical Origin of the Red-Shift of Absorption Peaks of Conjugated Polymers in Solution
HUANG Jie-Tao, WANG Da-Peng
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (11): 1486-1493.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210138
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Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) was used to measure the hydrodynamic radius ( R H) of two classic conjugated polymers (poly(2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene, MEH-PPV and poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT) in different solvents. It is found that the R H of the two polymers in various solvents is linear with the maximum absorption wavelength ( λ max) for the same polymer. We construct a mixed solvent system using good and bad solvents, and investigate the relationship between R H and λ max for MEH-PPV in a specific solvent mass by regulating the volume fraction of bad solvents. It is investigated that R H and λ max show a linear relationship in the presence of aggregation and conformational collapse. Furthermore, we study the absorption spectra and corresponding R H of MEH-PPV oligomers containing only four repeating units in a tetrahydrofuran-pure water mixture, and the λ max still remains red-shifted with increasing the proportion of non-solvent water. According to the above research work, it can be known that the absorption maximum for conjugated polymers in dilute solution is associated with the hydrodynamic radii of individual fluorophores that can be made of either the single-chain polymer or the polymer aggregate.
Application of Nano Biomaterials in Antiviral Vaccine Adjuvant
CAO Ling-Zhi, WANG Zhao-Shuo, WANG Bei
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (5): 572-581.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210062
Abstract824)      PDF (1256KB)(956)      
Viral infectious diseases seriously endanger human health, the new type of coronary pneumonia has become a major global public safety and health incident. Vaccination is an important way to effectively prevent and control viral infections and the spread of infectious diseases. While routine vaccines have shown a shortfall, such as short half-life, weak immunogenicity, weak targeting, slow absorption, and high storage and delivery requirements. In recent years, nanobiomaterials are expected to be used as vaccine adjuvants for the prevention and treatment of viral infectious diseases due to their lower systemic toxicity, stronger tissue targeting, higher specific surface area and lower immune titer. This review will focus on the classification, action pathways and mechanisms of nanobiomaterials as adjuvants for antiviral vaccines. In addition, the application of nanobiomaterials in the new crown vaccine is described in combination with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), which is currently popular worldwide. Finally, the challenges faced by nanobiomaterials in antiviral vaccine adjuvants are summarized.
Cited: CSCD(1)
Research Progress on Biosafety Materials for the Prevention and Control of the Coronavirus Disease 2019
CAI Man-Ying, LIAO Yu-Hui, XU Wei, ZHOU Dong-Fang
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2021, 38 (5): 498-509.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210053
Abstract824)      PDF (2071KB)(796)      
Biosafety has seriously threatened the survival and development of human beings. Under the situation of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic and the normalization of anti-epidemic, biosafety prevention and control is becoming more and more important, which is directly related to the development of society, economy and politics. At the beginning of COVID-19 epidemic, there was a serious lack of personal protective equipment, due to the shortage of medical emergency supplies and the lack of ability to public health emergencies. In the face of the severe challenge of the epidemic, interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary cooperation is the key to scientific epidemic prevention. The characteristics of the material, such as optical, electrical, acoustic, magnetic, thermal, are helpful for the design and preparation of multi-functional new materials, which can meet the requirements of biosafety prevention in detection, prevention and treatment. We should give full play to the advantages of biosafety and materials science. Using new biosafety materials to overcome the shortcomings of traditional materials can improve or provide new detection methods. Not only can we use biosafety materials to develop a variety of highly effective, low toxicity drugs and vaccines, but also to produce multifunctional masks and protective clothing. What we have done has contributed to the preparation of medical emergency supplies and to the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. At the same time, the toxicity of new biosafety materials can not be ignored. Only by accelerating industrialization based on basic research and practical problems can we better cope with other emerging outbreaks of infectious diseases in the future.
Development Opportunities and Challenges of Hydrogen Energy
Xing-Guo LI
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (7): 1157-1166.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.220059
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This paper firstly briefly explains the development opportunities of hydrogen energy from three aspects of energy resources, CO2 emission reduction and large-scale energy storage. Subsequently, some challenges faced by the development of hydrogen energy are introduced, and they are also the bottleneck of hydrogen energy development. If these problems are not solved, it is difficult for hydrogen energy to be industrialized. Therefore, focusing on hydrogen production, storage and transportation, infrastructure, key equipment, safety and other fields, this paper introduces the research status and the latest trends in the world, further explains some specific problems and technologies, and gives some directions and technical indicators. In addition, some diversified suggestions for the application of hydrogen energy are also put forward and can be used as a reference for industrial development.

Recent Progress of Single⁃Atom Catalytic Materials for Lithium⁃Sulfur Batteries
WANG-Xin, ZHANG-Dong, DU-Fei
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (4): 513-527.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210331
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Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are one of the promising next-generation energy storage technologies due to their high theoretical specific capacity and energy density. However, in practical applications, low conductivity of sulfur and lithium sulfide, dissolution of polysulfides (LIPSs), and poor conversion of LIPSs to Li2S2/Li2S result in the short lifespan and low rate performance of Li-S batteries. Recent studies show that single-atoms (SAs) with superior catalytic activities are ideal anchoring centers and catalytic sites for LIPSs. Modification of cathodes and separators with SAs helps to adsorb polysulfide, improve reaction kinetics and inhibit the shuttle effect. In addition, introduction of SAs into the anode can significantly improve the reversibility of Li deposition/stripping and inhibit the growth of dendrites. In this paper, we review the research progress of SAs in lithium-sulfur batteries, including material synthesis, characterization methods, application direction and catalytic mechanism. Finally, the key challenges and future developmental trends of SAs are summarized and discussed.

Artificial Carbon Sequestration Technology—Research Progress on the Catalysts for Thermal Catalytic Reduction of CO 2
Xue-Ting WU, Yang YU, Shu-Yan SONG, Hong-Jie ZHANG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (4): 599-615.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210451
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Selective hydrogenation has very important applications in the chemical industry such as synthesis of functional materials and purification of chemical products. In recent years, in order to reduce the impact of the greenhouse effect, the selective hydrogenation of CO2 into other valuable chemicals has become a research hotspot. Among them, the thermal catalysis is widely used, easy to obtain a variety of target products and high yield of products. At present, the heterogeneous thermal catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 to produce methane, methanol, light olefins and other high-value fuels and chemicals has made some progresses, but their development is still challenging. The preparation of high-efficiency catalysts is one of the keys. For a long time, researchers have been committed to solving the problem of catalyst activity and selectivity, and modifying the catalysts by doping with additives and adding functional carriers. In response to these problems, this article briefly introduces the background of the catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 and reviews the catalysts used in the heterogeneous thermal catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 into methane, methanol and light olefin products in recent five years. It is expected to provide a reference for the development of new catalysts in the heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation of CO2.