Journal Information

Issn: CN 22-1128/O6

CN:ISSN 1000-0518

Director:Chinese Academy of Sciences

Host:Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences

Most Read

Published in last 1 year |  In last 2 years |  In last 3 years |  All
Please wait a minute...
For Selected: Toggle Thumbnails
Review of Perovskite Photovoltaic Cell Encapsulation Material and Technology
Ting WANG, Qi WEI, Qiang FU, Wei LI, Shi-Wei WANG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (9): 1321-1344.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210521
Abstract2357)   HTML108)    PDF (9149KB)(1459)      

As the third generation of new concept solar cells, perovskite solar cells have the advantages of high photoelectric conversion efficiency, low-cost and flexible processing. They have been developed rapidly in recent years. Their photoelectric conversion efficiency has increased from 3.8% at the beginning to 25.5% in the near future. They are gradually comparable to silicon cells and have been close to the level of commercial application. At present, the key link to realize the industrial application of perovskite solar cells is battery packaging. It can not only solve the stability problem of perovskite photovoltaic devices, but also meet the requirements of battery safety, environmental protection and prolonging service life. Combined with the development status of perovskite photovoltaic cell packaging materials and packaging technology in recent ten years, this paper introduces the achievements and shortcomings in the field of perovskite cell packaging, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the existing packaging technologies, as well as their applicable different device types. Under different temperature and humidity conditions, the effects of different packaging material properties and packaging process conditions on the efficiency and stability of perovskite battery are compared, and three key factors affecting the packaging effect of perovskite battery thin film are summarized: elastic modulus of polymer, water vapor transmittance and processing temperature. The suitable processing temperature, advantages and disadvantages and processing cost of different polymer film packaging materials are compared. It can be seen that with the strong growth of industrial demand for perovskite photovoltaic cells and the deepening of people's research on their packaging materials, it will be an inevitable trend to study new functional polymer packaging materials suitable for large-scale production and photovoltaic building integration.

Research Progress in Detection of Heavy Metal Ions by Electrochemical Analysis
Ming-Yan LIU, Xiu-Ding SHI, Tian-Guo LI, Jing WANG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (4): 463-475.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.220228
Abstract1114)   HTML339)    PDF (1081KB)(1023)      

Heavy metals are difficult to biodegrade and pose a serious threat to the environment and human life and health. Hence, the detection and treatment of heavy metal pollution is vital. In recent years, electrochemical methods for the detection of heavy metal ions have become a research hotspot in the field of heavy metal detection because of their high sensitivity, fast analysis speed and the ability to detect multiple metal ions simultaneously. This paper reviews the detection principles and development status of common electrochemical detection methods, and describes the detection effects of potentiometric analysis, potentiometric stripping analysis and voltammetry by introducing the parameters of linear range, detection limit and recovery. Finally, the review outlines the advantages and disadvantages of various methods, and points out the future research directions in order to provide a basis for the application of electrochemical sensors.

Progress in Chemical Modification and Application of Lignin
Xing-Quan XIONG, Hui ZHANG, Li-Zhu GAO
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (6): 806-819.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.220363
Abstract1102)   HTML44)    PDF (2334KB)(875)      

Lignin is one of the most abundant and significant natural polymeric materials in the world, and its position is only second to cellulose. In woody plants, lignin content accounts for about 25%. Due to its chemical inertness and structural complexity, the application of lignin is very limited. Therefore, the chemical modification of lignin is the key method to transform lignin into functional materials, which is of great significance for the sustainable development of resources and environment. In this review, the research progress on the development of chemical modification of lignin and its applications, including wastewater treatment, heterogeneous catalysis and other aspects, are summarized. Furthermore, discussions on challenges and perspectives in the field of lignin modification are also presented.

In⁃situ Electrochemical Preparation of Li⁃Na Alloy and the Co⁃storage of Li + and Na + Ions
Li-Jun WU, Shou-Jie GUO, Chao ZHANG, Zhi-Sheng LI, Wei-Cong LI, Chang-Chun YANG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (11): 1757-1765.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.220074
Abstract815)   HTML16)    PDF (3325KB)(4969)      

Compared with single lithium or sodium, lithium-sodium alloy has better performance. In-situ electrochemical preparation of lithium sodium alloy is successfully achieved in button battery which is charged and discharged under gradient current density by using sodium metal as the positive electrode, lithium metal as the negative electrode, and LiPF6, NaClO4 or lithium sodium mixed ion electrolyte as the electrolyte. Benefiting from the synergistic effect of lithium and sodium double electrochemically active ions, the lithium-sodium mixed ion capacitors with different lithium contents as negative electrodes show good electrochemical performance. In particular, with lithium sodium alloy with high lithium content as the negative electrode and NaClO4 electrolyte added, Carbon derived from sodium citrate (Sodium citrate derived carbon, SCDC-activated) maintains the high specific capacity of 238 mA·h/g and the capacity retention rate of 99% at the current density of 1 A/g for 300 cycles. With the addition of lithium-sodium mixed ion electrolyte, SCDC-activated exhibits the specific capacity of 319 mA·h/g, and it can retain 93 mA·h/g and 98% capacity retention rate after 1040 cycles.

Research on Performance Decay Mechanism of Pt/C Catalyst in Long‑Term ORR Test
He LI, Gong LI, Xue GONG, Ming-Bo RUAN, Ce HAN, Ping SONG, Wei-Lin XU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (10): 1564-1571.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210574
Abstract771)   HTML29)    PDF (2690KB)(822)      

In proton exchange membrane fuel cells, cost, performance and durability are important issues that are need to be resolved before commercialization. The main reason for fuel cell performance degradation during operation is the loss of electrochemical surface area during long-term aging or transient. These losses mainly come from the degradation of the catalyst metal and the corrosion of the carbon support. This is a continuous and irreversible process that will greatly shorten the service life of the fuel cell. In order to explore this problem, 20% (mass fraction) Pt/C catalyst is prepared based on carbon carrier etched by sulfuric acid. The morphology characterization test shows that it is uniformly dispersed and uniform in particle size, which is considered as an excellent material for long-term oxygen reduction (ORR) stability test. Next, the ORR stability test method with different cyclic voltammetry (CV) cycles is used to observe its performance degradation, and a series of physical characterizations, e.g. transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy (Raman), are used to further intuitively analyzed the attenuation mechanism. It is reported that the reasons for the degradation of the stability of Pt/C catalysts are mainly from the dissolution, agglomeration, oxidation and migration of Pt particles and the corrosion of carbon supports. This study elucidates the source of the impact on the stability of fuel cells during operation, and provides a reference for designing high-stability commercial ORR catalysts.

Advances in Black Phosphorus Anode Advantages and Optimization in Li-ion Battery Anodes
Fang-Zheng HU, Xing GAO, Lei LIU, Tian-Heng YUAN, Ning CAO, Kai LI, Ya-Tao WANG, Jian-Hua LI, Hui-Qin LIAN, Xiao-Dong WANG, Xiu-Guo CUI
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (4): 571-582.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.220324
Abstract753)   HTML22)    PDF (1605KB)(1127)      

In the context of the development of new energy sources to reduce carbon emissions and achieve carbon neutralization, power batteries represented by lithium-ion batteries are given higher expectations. The development of electrode materials with high capacity, high multiplicity and high stability is a key step to achieve this goal. Graphite cathodes and silicon carbon cathodes are relatively mature at present, and maintain their respective advantages. Black phosphorus has two-dimensional layered structure and high lithium potential, which shows outstanding advantages in realizing extremely fast charging, but there are also some problems such as volume expansion. In view of the problems of black phosphorus anode, researchers studied the optimization from various dimensions, including structure optimization, surface interface optimization and the pre-lithiation strategy. In this paper, the possibility that black phosphorus can be used as anode electrode of extremely fast charging lithium ion battery is demonstrated, the optimization progress of black phosphorus negative electrode is then reviewed, and its own views and suggestions are put forward. The challenges and development direction of black phosphorus anode electrode are pointed out, and the development prospect of black phosphorus anode electrode is prospected.

Progress in Molecular Dynamics and Hansen Solubility Parameters of Low Molecular Weight Gels
Wan-Nian ZHANG, Fang YU, Shan-Lin ZHAO, Zhi-Qiang ZHANG, Yu-Peng HE
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (12): 1803-1817.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.220053
Abstract705)   HTML29)    PDF (8690KB)(867)      

Recently, the use of computational methods such as Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations and Hansen Solubility Parameters (HSPs) to study the behavior of small molecule gelators has attracted much attention. MD simulation is a computational method based on classical mechanics and is one of the preferred techniques for understanding the process of small molecule gelators. The MD simulation can more accurately analyze the gelation trend or assembly behavior of small molecule gelators, dynamically and graphically display the self-assembly process, effectively reveal the relationship between the structure of small molecule gelators and related gelation behavior, and quantitatively analyze non-covalent bond interactions such as hydrogen bonds, π-π stacking, van der Waals interactions, ionic bonding and solvophobic interactions. By performing molecular dynamics simulations on known gelators/non-gelators, parameters related to gelation behavior in the simulated data are extracted, and the linear correlation is measured by fitting the Pearson correlation coefficient to finally predict the gelation behavior of a certain class of small molecules. On the other hand, the empirical model developed according to the HSPs is the most representative, which consists of the energy of dispersion interaction (δd), the energy of polar interaction (δp) and H-bonding energy (δh) between molecules. These three parts determine the coordinate point of the three-dimensional space (Hansen space). According to the range of the point, it can be determined whether the organic small molecule can form a gel in a specific solvent. In this paper, representative works published recently in the field of organic small molecule gels by using MD simulations and empirical models are reviewed. Some comments on the assembly behavior of gelators, the regulation and prediction of non-covalent bond interactions on gelation ability are made.

Research Progress of Layered Transition Metal Oxides Cathode Materials for Sodium-ion Batteries
Wen-Jun SHI, Zhong-Hui SUN, Zhong-Qian SONG, XU-Jia NAN, Dong-Xue HAN, Li NIU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (4): 583-596.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.220320
Abstract662)   HTML30)    PDF (5754KB)(916)      

Layered transition metal oxide cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries have the characteristics of low price and high specific capacity, which is an important support for energy transition in the future and has great development potential. In the process of charging and discharging, the typical layered oxide cathode materials with the most promising development and application will produce a series of changes affecting their electrochemical properties with the insertion and extration of sodium-ion. Therefore, the modification of cathode materials is particularly important. The current mainstream failure mechanism, modification methods, challenges and key problems to be solved in the future development are summarized and put forward.

Progress in Synthesis, Detection and Clinical Application of Posaconazole
Qin-Qin TIAN, Jia ZHANG, Zhi CHEN, Wei HE, Sheng-Yong ZHANG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (8): 1177-1189.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210537
Abstract640)   HTML25)    PDF (1273KB)(875)      

Posaconazole, as the second generation of triazole antifungal drugs, has a wide antifungal spectrum and strong antibacterial activity. It is widely used in clinical practice. However, it has been eight years since its publication before it is approved in China. In order to better understand posaconazole, a first-line drug with great clinical demand, this paper summarizes the pharmacokinetics, pharmacological properties, clinical application and synthetic route of posaconazole in the literature at home and abroad. It is hoped that it can fill the gap in the domestic API market, break the current situation that the API is completely dependent on import, and provide a useful reference for the industrial R & D.

Researsh Progress of Photocatalytic Applications of Atomically Precise Coinage Metal Nanoclusters
Hui LU, Jiang LI, Li-Hua WANG, Ying ZHU, Jing CHEN
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (11): 1652-1664.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.220119
Abstract603)   HTML30)    PDF (5366KB)(1075)      

Photocatalysis has shown a great potential as a low-cost, environmentally friendly and sustainable treatment technology. However, limitations in incident light utilization and charge separation are major drawbacks that restrict the activity of current semiconductors. Coinage metal nanoclusters have been increasingly explored recently as photocatalytic material due to ultra-small size (<2 nm), separated energy level and tunable electronic structures. Meanwhile, it is an ideal model for exploring the photocatalytic mechanism at the atomic level because of its atomically precise structure. This review provides an overview of photocatalytic reactions based on coinage metal nanoclusters, including water splitting for hydrogen production, organic pollutant degradation, and aerobic oxidation of amines to imines. By discussing strategies to tailor the photocatalytic properties of coinage metal nanoclusters, the development potential of coinage metal nanocluster photocatalysts are prospected.

Effect of Sample Quality Control on X-ray Diffraction Measurement Results
Juan XIAO, Zhi-Feng SHI, Jia LIU, Bing LI, Xin-Rong XU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (5): 720-729.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.220349
Abstract596)   HTML6)    PDF (2744KB)(412)      

The effect of hydroxyapatite (HA) samples in different quality states on X-ray diffraction (XRD) results has been investigated systematically. The effects of sample state (block, layered and powder, etc.), experimental method selection (powder polycrystalline diffraction and thin film grazing incidence diffraction, etc.) and detection environmental conditions (temperature, humidity and X-ray irradiation) on XRD detection are investigated. The results show that, compared with the block sample of HA, the intensity of the characteristic XRD peak of the powder sample after grinding and sieving treatment is significantly enhanced. For HA multi-layered growth samples, the phase analysis of each layer can be accurately achieved by combining grazing incidence and conventional powder diffraction. The particle size, amount, and filling method of the HA powder sample can also affect the XRD detection. The results show that the characteristic peak intensity of the HA powder sample with a particle size of 37 μm is about twice that of the sample with a particle size of 137 μm. In addition, the vacant sample preparation in the middle of a small amount of samples can cause the peak position of the characteristic peak to shift from 31.8 to 31.4(°), and the peak intensity decreases from 11213.68 to 601.65. Moreover, appropriate storage and detection methods can prevent and avoid erroneous detection and result analysis for samples with poor stability to ambient temperature and humidity. Thus, ensuring high-quality XRD detection data and ensuring experimental data quality requires comprehensive quality control.

Research Progress of Metal-organic Framework MIL-88A(Fe) and Its Composites in Water Treatment
Hua-Yu WANG, Chao ZHANG, Ke-Ming CHEN, Ming GE
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (2): 155-168.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.220259
Abstract563)   HTML44)    PDF (2951KB)(1155)      

As an emerging material, multifunctional metal-organic framework MIL-88A(Fe) poses a potential application in water treatment. Considering the unique physical and chemical properties of MIL-88A(Fe) (i.e. porous structure, unsaturated metal sites and excellent visible light absorption ability), MIL-88A(Fe) can heterogeneously combine with other functional materials (i.e. carbon materials, inorganic semiconductor materials) to improve its adsorption and catalytic performance. This paper reviews the application of MIL-88A(Fe) and its composites as adsorbents and catalysts in water treatment. The mechanism of adsorption removal of pollutants in water by MIL-88A(Fe) and its composites (especially heavy metal ions) is summarized, and the reaction mechanism for degradation of organic pollutants in water by MIL-88A(Fe) and its composites in photocatalytic technology, Fenton-like technology, peroxydisulfate advanced oxidation technology and ozone-catalytic technology is introduced. It is pointed out that the MIL-88A(Fe)-based functional materials have problems such as narrow applicable pH range and difficulty in recycling in the process of wastewater treatment. Future research needs to optimize the preparation condition of MIL-88A(Fe) to improve the yield and ensure the regular morphology, small size and high crystallinity of MIL-88A(Fe), improve the stability of MIL-88A(Fe) by surface coating technology, and enhance the recycling performance of MIL-88A(Fe) by endowing its magnetic property. In addition, according to the structure of the target organic pollutants and water quality condition, it is necessary to reasonably adjust the degradation contribution of the free radical pathway and the non-radical pathway to the target pollutant in the MIL-88A(Fe)-based advanced oxidation process, thus achieving the best decontamination effect.

Research Progress of Noble Metal Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Evolution Reaction in Acidic Environment
Yin-Nan QIAN, Chuan SHI, Wei ZHANG, Zhao-Yan LUO
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (8): 1126-1139.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230129
Abstract535)   HTML22)    PDF (2372KB)(654)      

Water electrolysis is one of the most efficient and environmentally benign methods for the hydrogen production using renewable but intermittent power sources. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolyzers hold great significance for renewable energy storage and conversion. The acidic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is one of the main roadblocks that hinder the practical application of PEM water electrolyzers. Highly active, cost-effective, and durable electrocatalysts are indispensable for lowering the high kinetic barrier of OER to achieve boosted reaction kinetics. To date, a wide spectrum of advanced electrocatalysts has been designed and synthesized for enhanced acidic OER performance, though Ir and Ru based nanostructures still represent the state-of-the-art catalysts. In this Progress Report, recent research progress on novel electrocatalysts with acidic OER performance is reviewed. First, the basic understanding of acidic OER, including the reaction mechanism, is discussed. On this basis, the design and synthesis progress of noble metal acidic OER electrocatalysts are reviewed for noble metal Ir, Ru single atoms, alloys, oxides, etc. Finally, the future development of acidic OER is prospected from the aspects of reaction mechanism research and more efficient electrocatalyst design.

Preparation and Properties of Rice Starch Film
Jing-Wen WANG, Ya-Wen LYU, Ya-Zhuo SHANG, Hong-Lai LIU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (11): 1693-1702.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.220004
Abstract517)   HTML29)    PDF (1487KB)(933)      

Rice starch particles have small and uniform particle size, good dispersibility in water and film-forming property, and can be degraded in nature. At present, starch is widely used in food packaging, medical dressings and cosmetics industries. Using rice starch as raw material, sodium hydroxide as paste, glycerol as plasticizer and citric acid as crosslinking agent and solution pH regulator, starch film was prepared by tape casting. By measuring the morphology of starch particles, the gelatinization conditions of starch particles, gelatinization temperature, apparent viscosity and pH value of starch solution, mechanical properties, light transmittance and potassium glycyrrhizinate release performance of starch film tostudy the gelatinization conditions of rice starch, the effects of mass fractions of citric acid, starch and glycerol on the properties of starch film and the release of carrier substances. The results show that the rice starch used in this paperexists in the state of dispersed particles, and the gelatinization temperature ranges from 82.5 to 100.8 ℃.Citric acid interacts with starch molecules in the process of starch film formation, and can adjust the pH value of the solution to adapt to human skin. When the concentration of starch in the starch film becomes higher, the hardness after film formation is greater. The higher the concentration of glycerol, the better the elongation at break of starch film and the worse the tensile strength. In addition, the transmittance of starch film is the best when the concentration is 3.0%, which with good light transmittance has low crystallinity. Finally, the starch film prepared in this paper can contain the effective substance dipotassium glycyrrhizinate, which can be used as a skin repair film in cosmetics.

Advances of Inorganic‑inorganic Composite Electrochromic Films
Xin GU, Wen-Qing WANG, Jun-He HOU, Lu GAO, Ming-Hua HUANG, Ge SU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (9): 1345-1359.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.220049
Abstract515)   HTML20)    PDF (6075KB)(759)      

Under an external voltage, the optical properties (e.g. color, transmittance, etc.) of electrochromic materials can controllably and reversibly be changed, which has an important application prospects in the fields of energy conservation and emission reduction. With the continuous innovation and development of related research, the single-component electrochromic materials cannot show the expected electrochromic properties due to the limitations of their own structure and performance, and cannot be designed and regulated in their structure and performance, so it is increasingly unable to meet the needs of practical applications. Comparing with the non-composite electrochromic materials, the composite materials have obvious advantages in this aspect. Through the reasonable material design and with the coordination of each component, the core competitiveness of the composite materials is mainly represented by the electrochromic materials with excellent structure and performance can be obtained by stimulating the advantages and overcoming the disadvantages of each component. Therefore, more and more research focus on the composite electrochromic materials in recent years. At present many kinds of composite electrochromic materials have been researched, which mainly can be divided into three categories as inorganic-inorganic composite, organic-inorganic composite and organic-organic composite according to whether the composite components are inorganic or organic materials. Compared with the organic electrochromic materials, the inorganic electrochromic materials have significant advantages in material composition control, mechanical properties, optical modulation, service stability, life and other aspects. Therefore, either the single-component or the composite inorganic electrochromic materials have always been an important direction of research in this field. Hence, this paper devotes to the research status and development tendency of the inorganic-inorganic composite electrochromic materials, devices and electrolytes, including the research progress, the existing problems and the development trend. It will provide a basis for the further development and application of composite electrochromic materials.

Research Progress of Regulation of Driving Forces in Short Peptide Supramolecular Self‑Assembly
Wei-Qiang ZHANG, Chen WANG, Yu-Rong ZHAO, Dong WANG, Ji-Qian WANG, Hai XU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (8): 1190-1201.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210507
Abstract510)   HTML26)    PDF (3621KB)(436)      

Some short peptides can spontaneously self-assemble into various nanostructures via the synergistic driving forces of non-covalent interactions. These non-covalent interactions, including electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bonding, aromatic interactions and other non-covalent interactions, are usually highly coupled together. Through rational sequence design and proper modification of short peptide molecules, the driving forces could be regulated purposively, and the nanostructures and morphologies of the self-assemblies could be controlled accordingly, and thus so as to achieve the fabrication of peptide-based supramolecular biomaterials and develop their functions. In this paper, the effects of hydrogen bonding, π-π stacking, electrostatic interaction, hydrophobic interaction, metal ion coordination and chiral center on the self-assembly behavior of peptide self-assembly have been reviewed. The driving force regulation strategies, including sequence design, pH and concentration adjustment and metal ion coordination, and the resulted nanostructures have also been discussed. We also make the outlooks on the development of peptide-based supramolecular biomaterials with specific functions in biomedicines and biocatalysis.

Preparation and Performance of Environmentally Friendly Fluorine⁃Free Superhydrophobic Fabric for Oil/Water Separation
Xiao-Jian DING, Cong-Jun CAO, Cheng-Min HOU, Han-Xiao MA, Jiao HU, Meng-Jie REN, Guo-Yong YANG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (9): 1391-1400.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210374
Abstract480)   HTML2)    PDF (2992KB)(502)      

In view of the common drawbacks of superhydrophobic materials used for oil/water separation, such as unenvironmental raw materials, non-degradability and poor coating durability, etc., a simple and convenient impregnation method was adopted to prepare an environmental-friendly, excellent superhydrophobic material. Firstly, polymethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate P(MMA-r-GMA) polymer microsphere was fixed on the surface of cotton fabric using waterborne polyurethane (WPU) to construct micro-nano rough structure. Secondly, through a hydrolysis-condensation reaction, non-toxic hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HDTMS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) were anchored on the surface of the cotton fabric to prepare a superhydrophobic cotton fabric. The results show that the contact angle of the modified cotton fabric is up to 157.3(o) and the rolling angle is 5(o). At the same time, it has good solvent resistance, and the contact angle hardly changes after being immersed in an acid-base solution for 3 h. The oil-water separation efficiency can reach up to 97.8%, even after 10 cycles of separation, the oil-water separation efficiency is still above 95%. It can be seen that the super-hydrophobic fabric prepared by this research has excellent oil-water separation efficiency and excellent stability, and can be used in the field of sustainable and environmentally-friendly oil-water separation.

Preparation and Properties Characterization of Hydrophilic Polysiloxane and Polyvinyl Alcohol Composite as Skin Barrier Material
Bing-Gang CHEN, San-Rong LIU, Zi-Jiang JIANG, Xi-Fei YU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (8): 1224-1236.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210500
Abstract474)   HTML15)    PDF (4400KB)(703)      

As the outermost organ of human body, skin is easily injured. Therefore, it is more important to construct protected barrier material for skin. Herein, based on the performance requirement of skin barrier material, we construct a multifunctional skin barrier material PSI-PVA by combining hydrophilically modified polysiloxane (PSI) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) through ionic crosslinking. The test results indicate that PSI-PVA exhibits good stretchability in dry and wet and has compatible mechanical properties like skin. PSI-PVA is hydrophilic and the swelling ratio is up to 149% with the PVA content of 20%, and water can volatilize rapidly at room temperature, which makes PSI-PVA good breathability. PSI-PVA has good cleaning performance and can be easily cleaned from skin with water. In addition, PSI-PVA covalently linked with UV-absorbing group of hydroxybenzophenone can effectively decrease UV transmittance. The in vitro experiment indicates that NIH 3T3 cells have high survival rate (71%) irradiated by UVB (311 nm) with the protection of the PSI-PVA film. Furthermore, PSI-PVA also exhibits good biocompatibility through cell viability assay. The skin barrier material PSI-PVA constructed with composite of polysiloxane and polyvinyl alcohol can meet properties requirements and has good application prospects in fields of skin protection and injury repair.

Advances in Receptor‑ligand Interactions on Cell Surface Based on Framework Nucleic Acids
Lin-Jie GUO, Hong-Zhen PENG, Jiang LI, Li-Hua WANG, Ying ZHU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (10): 1475-1487.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.220032
Abstract462)   HTML37)    PDF (4929KB)(514)      

The specific interaction between receptor and ligand on cell surface plays an important role in cell biology. However, the distribution of receptor molecules on the cell membrane is discontinuous and dynamically different from that in the homogeneous solutions. The receptor-ligand interactions on the cell surface usually exhibit complex nonlinear binding patterns. In order to reveal the mechanisms, framework nucleic acids, as a class of DNA nanostructures with definite geometric shapes, could be used for the coupling of multivalent ligands. With the addressability at nanoscale, the number, spacing and spatial conformation of ligands are precisely regulated on framework nucleic acids. The binding characteristics between receptor and ligand on cell surface are studied, and efficient molecular recognition and targeted therapy could be achieved by optimizing these influencing factors. In this paper, the research progress of receptor-ligand interactions on cell surface based on framework nucleic acids is reviewed. By discussing the important influencing factors and biological applications, the future development of receptor-ligand interactions on cell surface based on framework nucleic acids is prospected.

Research Progress on Chemical Constituents and Extraction and Separation of Lonicera edulis
Ling-Yu ZHANG, Su-Xin HOU, Wen-Wei ZHANG, Shan JIANG, Jun-Tong LIU, Hao YUE, Nan ZHANG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (11): 1629-1640.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.220030
Abstract462)   HTML34)    PDF (678KB)(1369)      

Lonicera caerulea is a kind of natural wild edible berry with physiological activities such as scavenging free radicals, inhibiting phosphorylation of proteins related to inflammatory pathways and inhibiting proliferation of cancer cells. Its anti-oxidation, regulation of blood lipids, anti-tumor, anti-radiation and other health benefits can be applied to regulate intestinal flora structure, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, protect eyesight and other functional food fields. Besides, Lonicera caerulea has strong cold resistance capability and is easy to grow, which has a high market development value. This article summarizes the chemical information of active chemical components (procyanidins, anthocyanins, anthocyanins, flavonoids, organic acids, polysaccharide and other compounds) in Lonicera caerulea and sums up the extraction and separation methods of different types of chemical components (solvent extraction, enzymatic hydrolysis, microwave assisted extraction method, etc.), which aims at providing the basis for the further research and development and deep processing products develop of Lonicera caerulea.

Research Progress on Cultivation of Panax Ginseng C.A.Meyer
Jing-Wan LIU, Qiong LI, En-Peng WANG, Tao ZHANG, Huan WANG, Zhe ZHANG, Xue CHEN, Chang-Bao CHEN
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (11): 1641-1651.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.220077
Abstract454)   HTML15)    PDF (485KB)(459)      

As an economic crop, ginseng has been planted in China for thousands of years. Because of its various pharmacological activities, ginseng is widely used in food, medicine, cosmetics and other fields, but the actual output of ginseng can't meet the market demand at present. Improving the production efficiency of ginseng is still the primary objective of ginseng planting research. In recent years, many new modes, technologies, methods and instruments have emerged in the production,such as site election, seed treatment, sowing, scaffolding, cultivation and harvesting. This paper summarizes the research status of ginseng cultivation from cultivation mode and techniques, hoping to provide reference for improving the production efficiency of ginseng.

Synthesis and Photochromic Properties of Two Isostructural Viologen Coordination Polymers
Jin-Jian LIU, Na LIU, Feng-Yi YANG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (2): 245-251.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.220185
Abstract450)   HTML10)    PDF (1840KB)(772)      

As a new type of smart material, chromic materials have great applications in the fields of optical storage information and optical devices. Self-assembly of transition metal ions Mn2+ and Cd2+ with a viologen ligand, 1,1′-bis(4-carboxybenzyl)-4,4′-bipyridinium dichloride (H2BpybcCl2) with flexible backbone, forms two novel isostructural coordination polymers, [Mn(Bpybc)Cl2·H2O] n (1) and [Cd(Bpybc)Cl2·4H2O] n (2). X-ray single-crystal diffraction shows that two compounds are one-dimensional chain structures. Both compounds exhibit obvious photochromic behaviors under UV irradiation, which is caused by photo-induced electron transfer to generate viologen free radicals.

Reserch Progress of Preparation of Ordered Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrate
Xin HE, Cai-Yun JIANG, Tao DING, Yu-Ping WANG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (8): 1167-1176.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210375
Abstract445)   HTML30)    PDF (1925KB)(513)      

Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) is a vibration spectroscopy technology, which can directly identify target analytes and has a wide range of applications in chemistry, physics, materials, biomedicine and other fields. Ordered SERS substrate refers to the SERS substrate composed of regularly arranged nanostructures, which has good uniformity and reproducibility. In this review, surface enhanced Raman scattering and SERS substrates are introduced, and the self-assembly method, lithography technology and template-assisted method for preparing ordered SERS substrates are emphatically described.

Progress on Tuning the Geometric and Electronic Structure of Precious Metal Catalysts for Hydrogen Peroxide Production via Two-Electron Oxygen Reduction
Er-Gui LUO, Tao TANG, Yi WANG, Jun-Ming ZHANG, Yu-Hong CHANG, Tian-Jun HU, Jian-Feng JIA
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (8): 1063-1076.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230048
Abstract441)   HTML22)    PDF (4459KB)(906)      

Electrochemical synthesis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2via two-electron oxygen reduction reaction (2e-ORR) is featured with cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness, and enables on-site production of H2O2 on demand. One of the key technologies is the development of safe, economical and efficient 2e-ORR catalysts. Here, the research progress in precious-metal-based catalytic materials for the synthesis of H2O2via 2e-ORR in recent ten years is reviewed. This review starts with the fundamental mechanism of ORR, pointing out the tuning knobs of reaction pathway on precious-metal surfaces, namely, *OOH binding energy and O2 adsorption mode. The regulating methodologies of geometric structure and electronic structure of precious-metal materials are summarized and exemplified, emphasizing the importance of balanced optimization of catalytic activity and selectivity. We have also briefly introduced the lab-scale methods for performance evaluation of 2e-ORR catalysts. Finally, the challenges and prospects of H2O2 synthesis catalyzed by precious metals are discussed, especially the catalyst stability and the objective evaluation of cost. This review is expected to provide a reference for rational design of novel 2e-ORR catalysts.

Relationship Between Hardness and Impact Properties of Thermoplastic Polyurethane Blends
Dan ZHANG, Fang LIU, Xue YANG, Dong-Hua XU, Tong-Fei SHI
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (8): 1216-1223.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210476
Abstract434)   HTML17)    PDF (1568KB)(451)      

Two kinds of thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs) with the same molecular composition and different hardness are used to prepare TPU blends with different hardness. The relationship between the hardness and impact properties of TPU blends is investigated. The impact properties of TPU blends are characterized by the falling ball impact test, pressure sensitive paper test and sample surface temperature test before and after impact. When the hardness of the sample is lower, the peak impact force is smaller, the impact duration is longer, the maximum strain of the sample is larger, the maximum impact area of the sample increases, and the value of maximum stress decreases. The energy dissipation ratio of samples with different hardness has little difference, but it shows a trend of slight increase with the decrease of hardness. The surface temperature of samples after impact increases compared with that before impact, indicating that part of energy is dissipated by heat. The temperature difference of samples with different hardness is similar, which is similar to the change of energy dissipation ratio of samples. All samples have high energy dissipation ratios. TPU can dissipate most of the impact energy, and has good impact resistance.

Research Progress of Side-Chain Sulfonated Polyarylene Ether Proton Exchange Membranes
Tong CAO, Jun PENG, Yan FENG, Xiao-Bo LIU, Yu-Min HUANG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (12): 1783-1802.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.220114
Abstract424)   HTML26)    PDF (11092KB)(323)      

Fuel cell is a new type of energy conversion device using hydrogen, methanol, etc. as fuel, among which the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has been widely used in mobile power, submarines and electric vehicles by virtue of its high energy power, fast start-up speed and long service life. Proton exchange membranes (PEM) have the greatest impact on the performance of PEMFC. Efficient PEMFC requires PEM with high proton conductivity, good thermal stability and mechanical properties, low fuel permeability and excellent physical and chemical stability. Most of the membranes currently used in the market are Nafion membranes with excellent proton conductivity, but they have disadvantages such as difficulty in preparation, expensive cost, and heavy dependence on humidity for proton conductivity, which limits their development to some extent. In order to make more options for proton exchange membranes, scientists have been focusing on using new materials to replace Nafion membranes. In recent years, scientists have simulated the Nafion structure by synthesizing various side chain polyaryl ether structures containing sulfonic acid groups, allowing the formation of microphase separation structures between hydrophilic sulfonic acid groups and hydrophobic groups, resulting in a series of proton exchange membranes with excellent overall performance. This paper focuses on the synthesis methods and properties of several common strategies, such as side chain alkyl sulfonated type, side chain sulfonated block type, side chain partially dense sulfonated type, side chain sulfonated cross-linked type and side chain sulfonated composite type. Finally, the advantages and development prospects of side chain sulfonated polyaryl ethers in the field of proton exchange membranes are reviewed.

Theoretical Research Progress of Single Atom Catalysts in Electrochemical Synthesis of Ammonia
Rong CAO, Jie-Zhen XIA, Man-Hua LIAO, Lu-Chao ZHAO, Chen ZHAO, Qi WU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (1): 9-23.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.220138
Abstract417)   HTML21)    PDF (4168KB)(764)      

Ammonia synthesis in the traditional Haber-Bosch process requires large energy consumption and complex plant infrastructure. Driven by the development of renewable energy, electrocatalysts for the nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) have attracted ever-growing attention and have been considered as the most efficient alternative to the catalyst in the Haber-Bosch process. However, this process suffers from low NH3 production and Faradaic efficiency. Therefore, the development of more efficient electrocatalysts is crucial for their practical applications. Among the previously reported catalysts, single-atom catalysts (SACs) exhibit significant advantages in efficient utilization of atoms and unsaturated coordination, providing a huge scope for optimizing catalyst performance. In this paper, the theoretical research of single-atom catalysts in electrochemical ammonia synthesis is reviewed, and the performance of three types of single-atom catalysts, namely noble metal catalysts, non-precious metal catalysts and metal-free catalysts, is analyzed in detail, aiming to provide new ideas for the development of electrochemical ammonia synthesis technology.

Research Progress on the Application and Function of Portulaca Oleracea L. in Cosmetics
Xing-Yu TAO, Xuan HU, Tong-Chuan WU, Fei ZHENG, Hao YUE, Yu-Lin DAI
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (6): 820-832.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.220351
Abstract417)   HTML11)    PDF (2742KB)(1077)      

Portulaca oleracea L. (PO) contains various active chemicals. PO is a medicine and food homologous to traditional Chinese medicine, which has high medicinal and edible value. In recent years, it has been widely used in the field of the chemical industry, especially in the field of cosmetics. Cosmetic companies have developed facial masks, essence, skin care water, cleanser and other cosmetic products that have been added the active ingredient extracted from PO. However, the related commercial cosmetics of PO mainly contain the ethanol extracts, while there are few cosmetic products involving its aqueous extracts, such as polysaccharide and polyphenol. The emergence of new dosage forms has enriched the research on the percutaneous delivery system of PO in cosmetics, and new carriers such as liposomes, delivery bodies, and β-cyclodextrins can be developed in the future. The chemical composition, function, mechanism, and application of Portulaca oleracea in cosmetics are summarized, and some suggestions and prospects are put forward on the development and application of Portulaca oleracea in cosmetics.

Semi⁃interpenetrated Network Hydrogels Prepared by in⁃situ Initiation of Liquid Metal to Construct a Low Fouling Electrochemical Sensing Interface
De LI, Nan WANG, Hua-Wei YANG, Jiao MA
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (9): 1464-1474.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.220165
Abstract415)   HTML11)    PDF (4380KB)(411)      

Any materials present in complex samples that bind the sensing interface non-specifically will greatly decrease the sensitivity and accuracy of the electrochemical sensor. Traditional antifouling coatings could hinder the electron transfer, resulting in a double-edged strategy. Here, we create a semi-interpenetrated nanocomposite hydrogel, consisting of a liquid metal (LM) conductive core, an antifouling poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (pNVP) network covalently grafting from it and homogeneously distributed chitosan around the pNVP chain, with excellent antifouling property while maintaining high conductivity. Remarkably, we further propose a polymerization-crosslinking separation strategy, thus facilitating the hydrogel sensing matrix with good processibility, accompanying repeatability and excellent stability. Finally, a label-free electrochemical immunosensor based on the proposed hydrogel-based sensing interface is successfully fabricated, and it possesses excellent repeatability, storage stability, selectivity, a wide linear range from 10 pg/mL~10 μg/mL, and an ultralow detection limit of 6.91 pg/mL for the detection of motilin. Moreover, no change is observed even in the presence of 5% serum. The above results successfully proved the feasibility of using liquid metal nanocomposite hydrogel as electrochemical sensing base, and also provides important reference for the construction of other electrochemical immunosensor.

Research Progress of Deep Eutectic Solvent and Its Application Prospects as Antistatic Agents
Qi-Hang CHEN, Fei-Jian XU, Feng WANG, Shuang-Chan FU, Ying-Hao YU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (3): 341-359.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.220227
Abstract410)   HTML8)    PDF (5908KB)(412)      

With the development of science and technology, environmentally friendly green chemistry has gradually become the mainstream of the times. Low-toxic, non-toxic, recyclable, and biodegradable materials have become the center of current research. Ionic liquid is a kind of liquid composed entirely of ions. It is a kind of green solvent which is odorless, non-flammable, extremely low in vapor pressure, and recyclable and can be separated from other substances easily. It also has a wide operating temperature range, good thermal and chemical stability. Deep eutectic solvents are a large class of eutectic mixtures that have many similar physical properties to ionic liquids. They are mostly liquids at room temperature. Compared with ionic liquids, deep eutectic solvents have lower costs, simpler preparation methods, and better moisture resistance, which makes them more promising in industry. As an emerging research field, deep eutectic solvents have received extensive attention and research in the field of chemistry, but the research on deep eutectic solvents for functional materials for energy and environmental applications is still in the early stage of exploration. In addition to being widely used as inert media and reagents for synthesizing materials, deep eutectic solvents can also be directly used as functional materials, such as electrolytes in electrochemical energy storage devices or adsorbents in adsorption and extraction processes. Therefore, in this review the fundamentals of deep eutectic solvents and their application in the field of material chemistry, especially the application of functional materials is introduced, and the application of deep eutectic solvents in the field of antistatic is analyzed and prospected in combination with related reports.

Atomic Dispersion Ir‑N‑C Catalysts for Anode Anti‑poisoning Electrolysis in Fuel Cell
Xian WANG, Xiao-Long YANG, Rong-Peng MA, Chang-Peng LIU, Jun-Jie GE, Wei XING
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (8): 1202-1208.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210477
Abstract408)   HTML20)    PDF (1794KB)(458)      

The anti-poisoning behavior of the anode catalyst, especially the tolerance to CO, is of vital importance for the widespread application of fuel cells. Herein, we successfully synthesize an Ir based catalyst in atomic dispersion. The Ir-N-C catalyst has excellent electrocatalytic performance for formic acid oxidation, which represents the mass activity that is 48 times of the commercial Pd/C. In a single cell, the Ir-N-C catalyst represents a mass specific power density at 281 mW/mg, which is 3 times higher than of the Pd/C catalyst. Furthermore, the Ir-N-C catalysts show amazing CO anti-poisoning performance. After a long-term test of 14000 s, its activity only decays by 68%, which is much better than commercial Pd/C catalysts (85%). In addition, the catalyst can be easily prepared, which provides a new path for the large-scale preparation of single-atom catalysts.

Research Progress of Carbon‑Encapsulated Iron‑Based Nanoparticles Electrocatalysts for Zinc‑Air Batteries
Dan WANG, Xian-Biao HOU, Xing-Kun WANG, Zhi-Cheng LIU, Huan-Lei WANG, Ming-Hua HUANG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (10): 1488-1500.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210573
Abstract398)   HTML21)    PDF (6308KB)(1245)      

Zinc-air batteries (ZABs) are regarded as one of the most promising candidates for a new generation of advanced energy conversion and storage devices, while the inferior activity and stability of air cathode electrocatalysts largely hinder the widespread application of ZABs. The extensive efforts for exploring and designing high active yet stable air cathode catalysts is, therefore, indispensable for the improvement of ZABs performance. Recently, carbon-encapsulated iron-based nanoparticles have been reported to exhibit excellent oxygen catalytic performance on account of their resistance to corrosion, oxidation, and aggregation under harsh conditions, and have been widely used as cathode materials for ZABs. As a result, we systematically summarize the applications of carbon-encapsulated transition metal iron-based materials as cathode catalysts for ZABs. In this review, the basic principle of ZABs and challenges faced by air cathode catalysts are firstly expounded. Then, the research progress of the carbon-encapsulated iron-based nanoparticles electrocatalysts (such as iron-based and its alloy, carbide, oxide and phosphide, et al.) are emphatically discussed and analyzed. Finally, the future development perspectives of carbon-encapsulated iron-based electrocatalysts in the applications of ZABs are put forward.

Explosives & Propellants and Chemistry
De-Hong YANG, Yang YANG, Kun WANG, Wen-Jie FAN, Fang HE, Liu-Xue ZHANG, Yao-Min ZHAO
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (6): 916-922.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.220390
Abstract398)   HTML657)    PDF (3115KB)(633)      

Gunpowder is one of the four great inventions of ancient China, which once had an important impact on the world pattern and development process. However, after the late Ming Dynasty and the early Qing Dynasty, gunpowder firearms gradually declined in China. Gunpowder moved to the West with the war and became black powder, which promoted the birth and development of modern chemical science. The development of chemical science is of great significance to the dynamite family. The brilliant achievements of China's modern king of dynamite revitalize the glory of Chinese gunpowder. This paper reviews the legendary development course and the groundbreaking role of dynamite, describes the properties, rich types and unique working principles of its special chemical energy, and tries to trace the internal mechanism of gunpowder combustion and explosion. It aims to highlight the importance of scientific thinking mode and the development of chemistry discipline to the study of explosives, so as to continuously enrich the knowledge connotation of chemistry students, stimulate their enthusiasm for innovative thinking, enhance their professional confidence, cultural confidence and national confidence, and promote the spirit of scientists.

Research Progress on Preparation of SiC Ceramic Powders by Atmospheric High Temperature Solid Phase Reaction
Xiao-Lin LAN, Hong-Xing ZHENG, Yi-Fan ZHANG, Zhen ZHAO, He-Ye XIAO, Zhi-Jiang WANG, Peng-Yang DENG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (4): 476-485.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.220287
Abstract397)   HTML28)    PDF (2599KB)(523)      

The purity, microstructure and uniformity of ceramic powders will affect the final performance of ceramic products. Therefore, achieving the controlled synthesis of SiC powders is the current research focus of silicon carbide preparation. Herein, SiC is used as the main material to summarize its main preparation methods. Under the normal pressure sintering system, the specific effects of temperature, raw materials, catalysts, gas supersaturation and other factors on SiC products are discussed based on the growth mechanism of Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) mechanism and the Vapor-Solid (VS) mechanism. The controllable synthesis of SiC ceramic powder has important theoretical value and guiding significance for the large-scale production, application and subsequent preparation of ceramic products.

Basics of Research Progress for Urea Electrolysis for Hydrogen Generation and Urea Fuel Cells
Chun YIN, Jia-Xin LI, Li-Gang FENG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (8): 1158-1174.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230131
Abstract386)   HTML22)    PDF (3960KB)(925)      

Urea as an effective hydrogen carrier can be used in urea electrolysis (UE) for hydrogen production and direct urea fuel cells (DUFC). In urea electrolysis, the coupling of urea oxidation reaction (UOR) at the anode and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) at the cathode to produce hydrogen is more cost-effective than water electrolysis, with energy consumption reduced by about 30% and economic cost reduced by about 36%. In the direct urea fuel cells, urea as fuel at the anode and coupled with oxygen reduction at the cathode can convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy. As the basis of these two energy conversion technologies, UOR has received more and more attention. This review discusses the reaction principle and performance description parameters of UOR in alkaline electrolytes and introduces the application of UOR in UE and DUFC. Attention is also given to the principles of UE and DUFC and the development status of some catalysts, and finally, the challenges faced in the development of UE and DUFC are also commented. Hopefully, this review will be helpful for understanding the basics of UE and DUFC.

Facile Synthesis and High⁃Efficiency Electrocatalytic Oxygen Evolution Performance of Ternary Nickel⁃Based Chalcogenide Nanorod Arrays
Wei-Min DU, Xin LIU, Lin ZHU, Jia-Min FU, Wen-Shan GUO, Xiao-Qing YANG, Pei-Shuo SHUANG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (8): 1252-1261.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210458
Abstract383)   HTML22)    PDF (3488KB)(412)      

Ternary nickel-based chalcogenide (Ni3(Se x S1-x2) nanorod arrays supported by nickel foams(NF) are successfully synthesized by an one-step solvothermal method. Structural characterization results show that the obtained Ni3(Se x S1-x2 nanorods belong to the trigonal phase and form an ordered array structure on nickel foams. Due to the fast carrier transfer efficiency, abundant active sites and the synergistic effect of poly-anions, Ni3(Se0.3S0.72/NF nanorod arrays have the optimal electrocatalytic performance. In 1.0 mol/L KOH solution, Ni3(Se0.3S0.72/NF nanoarrays have the overpotential of only 344 mV at 50 mA/cm2, Tafel slope of 40.17 mV/dec, and excellent electrochemical stability. More importantly, the overall water splitting is carried out with Ni3(Se0.3S0.72/NF nanorod array as the anode and the commercial Pt/C as the cathode. It is found that a battery potential of 1.49 V can provide the electrolysis current of 10 mA/cm2, showing the good electrocatalytic effect. This work provides an efficient electrocatalyst for the field of electrolysis water technology, and also provides valuable insights for the reasonable construction of non-precious electrocatalysts in electrochemical energy technology.

Research Progress of Computation and Simulation Application in the Study of Adsorption Mechanism and Design of Metal-Organic Frameworks Materials
Lei HUANG, Qian-Wen YANG, Jing-Ling ZHANG, Fei XU, Tai YE, Xing-Fa REN, Xiu-Xiu WU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (12): 1643-1661.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230174
Abstract381)   HTML31)    PDF (6955KB)(243)      

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) materials have gained a lot of attention because of their good stability, excellent adsorption properties and designability. In the last decade, the research about MOFs materials has developed rapidly. As an important research tool, theoretical computation and simulation have played an irreplaceable role in the study of adsorption mechanism and high-throughput screening of MOFs materials and other work studies. This work summarizes the computation and simulation methods including quantum mechanical calculations, molecular mechanics simulation, mesoscopic simulation, finite element simulation and machine learning, summarizes the different levels of computation and simulation methods used to solve the main scientific problems in the research of MOFs materials, and highlights the progress of the application of these methods in several typical research areas, such as the adsorption separation and storage of gases, adsorption separation and extraction of organic compounds in solution, catalytic reaction and drug loading. Finally, the prospect and development of computation and simulation for the study of MOFs materials are proposed.

A Visual Semi⁃quantitative Method for Rapid Detection of Copper Ion in Water
Feng-Zhou XU, Hua-Ying TANG, Wu-Hui LIU, Yi-Feng JIANG, Wen-Kai LI, Xian-Hai LU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2022, 39 (8): 1303-1311.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210399
Abstract380)   HTML6)    PDF (2474KB)(422)      

Copper is one of the heavy metal pollutants. The development of point of care testing (POCT) is necessary in the emergency detection of pollution events, which can avoid the spread of the contaminated area. Based on DNA-stabilized fluorescent copper nanoparticles (CuNPs), a ultraviolet(UV)-assisted POCT (fluorescence colorimetric) was developed for detection of Cu2+. In this method, after optimization of conditions, CuNPs were synthesized in the MOPS solution using 600 nmol/L poly(AT-TA) dsDNA as the scaffold and 2 mmol/L sodium ascorbate as the reducing agent. With the aid of a UV flashlight, the red-orange fluorescence of CuNPs is visible to naked-eye (wearing anti-UV goggles). Also, the fluorescence brightness varies with the concentration of Cu2+. Based on this strategy, a semi-quantitative detection method for Cu2+ was developed, i.e., the concentration range of Cu2+ in the water-sample could be detected by fluorescent colorimetry with standard series. The LOD of the method is 1.5 mg/L (24 μmol/L), which meets the requirements of third-level of discharge standard in the Comprehensive Sewage Discharge Standard (GB 8978-1996). This method is a new semi-quantitative, visual point of care testing for Cu2+, which can provide a reference method for rapid on-site detection of copper pollution in environmental water.

Research Progress on Superhydrophilic/Superaerophobic Electrocatalysts for Water Splitting
Cui-Ying TAN, Wei-Chao DING, Ting-Ting MA, Yao XIAO, Jian LIU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (8): 1109-1125.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230126
Abstract376)   HTML16)    PDF (4817KB)(1538)      

Among many hydrogen production technologies, electrolysis of water has many obvious advantages, such as environmentally friendly, simple and easy to operate. Industrial-scale hydrogen production is typically carried out at high current density. A great number of H2 bubbles will generate on the electrode surface during the process of hydrogen production. The aggregation and adhesion of bubbles on the electrode surface will lead to a large number of active sites being covered, resulting in the reduction of the efficiency. Therefore, regulating bubble wetting behavior is crucial for industrial electrolysis of water. In recent years, superaerophobic materials have attracted much attention due to their unique wetting capabilities. Superwetting interface materials can be constructed by controlling the chemical composition of the electrode surface and constructing rough structure at micro and nano scales. This type of material has a superhydrophilic/superaerophobic interface structure, which facilitates the effective infiltration of aqueous electrolyte and accelerates the release of in-situ generated bubbles, thus enhancing the water splitting performance of the catalyst. This paper systematically introduces the water splitting catalysts with superhydrophilic/superaerophobic interfacial structures reported in recent years, outlines the synthetic design strategies and catalytic performance of the catalysts, and the current research status, challenges and application prospects of superwetting water splitting catalysts are summarized and prospected.

Research Progress of in Situ Exsolution of Electrode Surface of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
Jun-Ling MENG, Chuan TIAN, Na XU, Li-Na ZHAO, Hai-Xia ZHONG, Zhan-Lin XU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (10): 1335-1346.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230141
Abstract376)   HTML37)    PDF (2631KB)(380)      

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are energy conversion devices with high conversion efficiency, environmental friendliness, and wide fuel adaptability. As the place of electrochemical reactions, electrodes play a key role in the performance of SOFCs. Compared with the conventional electrode materials, the electrode with nanoparticles exsolved on the surface show stronger catalytic activity and excellent electrochemical performance. In this article, the investigations of in situ exsolution of perovskite-type electrode materials are summarized. Firstly, the effect of the crystal structure of perovskite on exsolution of electrode is discussed. Secondly, the influences of defects in perovskite on the exsolution of nanoparticles are introduced in detail. And then two main methods for in situ exsolution are compared and different exsolved products are analyzed. Finally, the difficulties and challenges faced to the in situ exsolution investigation for the SOFC electrode are put forward on the basis of the existing research, which points out the direction for future study.