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Issn: CN 22-1128/O6

CN:ISSN 1000-0518

Director:Chinese Academy of Sciences

Host:Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences

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Research Progress of Noble Metal Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Evolution Reaction in Acidic Environment
Yin-Nan QIAN, Chuan SHI, Wei ZHANG, Zhao-Yan LUO
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (8): 1126-1139.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230129
Abstract535)   HTML22)    PDF (2372KB)(654)      

Water electrolysis is one of the most efficient and environmentally benign methods for the hydrogen production using renewable but intermittent power sources. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolyzers hold great significance for renewable energy storage and conversion. The acidic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is one of the main roadblocks that hinder the practical application of PEM water electrolyzers. Highly active, cost-effective, and durable electrocatalysts are indispensable for lowering the high kinetic barrier of OER to achieve boosted reaction kinetics. To date, a wide spectrum of advanced electrocatalysts has been designed and synthesized for enhanced acidic OER performance, though Ir and Ru based nanostructures still represent the state-of-the-art catalysts. In this Progress Report, recent research progress on novel electrocatalysts with acidic OER performance is reviewed. First, the basic understanding of acidic OER, including the reaction mechanism, is discussed. On this basis, the design and synthesis progress of noble metal acidic OER electrocatalysts are reviewed for noble metal Ir, Ru single atoms, alloys, oxides, etc. Finally, the future development of acidic OER is prospected from the aspects of reaction mechanism research and more efficient electrocatalyst design.

Progress on Tuning the Geometric and Electronic Structure of Precious Metal Catalysts for Hydrogen Peroxide Production via Two-Electron Oxygen Reduction
Er-Gui LUO, Tao TANG, Yi WANG, Jun-Ming ZHANG, Yu-Hong CHANG, Tian-Jun HU, Jian-Feng JIA
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (8): 1063-1076.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230048
Abstract441)   HTML22)    PDF (4459KB)(907)      

Electrochemical synthesis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2via two-electron oxygen reduction reaction (2e-ORR) is featured with cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness, and enables on-site production of H2O2 on demand. One of the key technologies is the development of safe, economical and efficient 2e-ORR catalysts. Here, the research progress in precious-metal-based catalytic materials for the synthesis of H2O2via 2e-ORR in recent ten years is reviewed. This review starts with the fundamental mechanism of ORR, pointing out the tuning knobs of reaction pathway on precious-metal surfaces, namely, *OOH binding energy and O2 adsorption mode. The regulating methodologies of geometric structure and electronic structure of precious-metal materials are summarized and exemplified, emphasizing the importance of balanced optimization of catalytic activity and selectivity. We have also briefly introduced the lab-scale methods for performance evaluation of 2e-ORR catalysts. Finally, the challenges and prospects of H2O2 synthesis catalyzed by precious metals are discussed, especially the catalyst stability and the objective evaluation of cost. This review is expected to provide a reference for rational design of novel 2e-ORR catalysts.

Basics of Research Progress for Urea Electrolysis for Hydrogen Generation and Urea Fuel Cells
Chun YIN, Jia-Xin LI, Li-Gang FENG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (8): 1158-1174.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230131
Abstract386)   HTML22)    PDF (3960KB)(926)      

Urea as an effective hydrogen carrier can be used in urea electrolysis (UE) for hydrogen production and direct urea fuel cells (DUFC). In urea electrolysis, the coupling of urea oxidation reaction (UOR) at the anode and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) at the cathode to produce hydrogen is more cost-effective than water electrolysis, with energy consumption reduced by about 30% and economic cost reduced by about 36%. In the direct urea fuel cells, urea as fuel at the anode and coupled with oxygen reduction at the cathode can convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy. As the basis of these two energy conversion technologies, UOR has received more and more attention. This review discusses the reaction principle and performance description parameters of UOR in alkaline electrolytes and introduces the application of UOR in UE and DUFC. Attention is also given to the principles of UE and DUFC and the development status of some catalysts, and finally, the challenges faced in the development of UE and DUFC are also commented. Hopefully, this review will be helpful for understanding the basics of UE and DUFC.

Research Progress of Computation and Simulation Application in the Study of Adsorption Mechanism and Design of Metal-Organic Frameworks Materials
Lei HUANG, Qian-Wen YANG, Jing-Ling ZHANG, Fei XU, Tai YE, Xing-Fa REN, Xiu-Xiu WU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (12): 1643-1661.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230174
Abstract381)   HTML31)    PDF (6955KB)(243)      

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) materials have gained a lot of attention because of their good stability, excellent adsorption properties and designability. In the last decade, the research about MOFs materials has developed rapidly. As an important research tool, theoretical computation and simulation have played an irreplaceable role in the study of adsorption mechanism and high-throughput screening of MOFs materials and other work studies. This work summarizes the computation and simulation methods including quantum mechanical calculations, molecular mechanics simulation, mesoscopic simulation, finite element simulation and machine learning, summarizes the different levels of computation and simulation methods used to solve the main scientific problems in the research of MOFs materials, and highlights the progress of the application of these methods in several typical research areas, such as the adsorption separation and storage of gases, adsorption separation and extraction of organic compounds in solution, catalytic reaction and drug loading. Finally, the prospect and development of computation and simulation for the study of MOFs materials are proposed.

Research Progress on Superhydrophilic/Superaerophobic Electrocatalysts for Water Splitting
Cui-Ying TAN, Wei-Chao DING, Ting-Ting MA, Yao XIAO, Jian LIU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (8): 1109-1125.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230126
Abstract376)   HTML16)    PDF (4817KB)(1538)      

Among many hydrogen production technologies, electrolysis of water has many obvious advantages, such as environmentally friendly, simple and easy to operate. Industrial-scale hydrogen production is typically carried out at high current density. A great number of H2 bubbles will generate on the electrode surface during the process of hydrogen production. The aggregation and adhesion of bubbles on the electrode surface will lead to a large number of active sites being covered, resulting in the reduction of the efficiency. Therefore, regulating bubble wetting behavior is crucial for industrial electrolysis of water. In recent years, superaerophobic materials have attracted much attention due to their unique wetting capabilities. Superwetting interface materials can be constructed by controlling the chemical composition of the electrode surface and constructing rough structure at micro and nano scales. This type of material has a superhydrophilic/superaerophobic interface structure, which facilitates the effective infiltration of aqueous electrolyte and accelerates the release of in-situ generated bubbles, thus enhancing the water splitting performance of the catalyst. This paper systematically introduces the water splitting catalysts with superhydrophilic/superaerophobic interfacial structures reported in recent years, outlines the synthetic design strategies and catalytic performance of the catalysts, and the current research status, challenges and application prospects of superwetting water splitting catalysts are summarized and prospected.

Research Progress of in Situ Exsolution of Electrode Surface of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
Jun-Ling MENG, Chuan TIAN, Na XU, Li-Na ZHAO, Hai-Xia ZHONG, Zhan-Lin XU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (10): 1335-1346.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230141
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Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are energy conversion devices with high conversion efficiency, environmental friendliness, and wide fuel adaptability. As the place of electrochemical reactions, electrodes play a key role in the performance of SOFCs. Compared with the conventional electrode materials, the electrode with nanoparticles exsolved on the surface show stronger catalytic activity and excellent electrochemical performance. In this article, the investigations of in situ exsolution of perovskite-type electrode materials are summarized. Firstly, the effect of the crystal structure of perovskite on exsolution of electrode is discussed. Secondly, the influences of defects in perovskite on the exsolution of nanoparticles are introduced in detail. And then two main methods for in situ exsolution are compared and different exsolved products are analyzed. Finally, the difficulties and challenges faced to the in situ exsolution investigation for the SOFC electrode are put forward on the basis of the existing research, which points out the direction for future study.

Research Progress on the Treatment and Resource Utilization of Glyphosate Wastewater
Zhi-Fei ZANG, Jie LIANG, Ben-Jun XI, Chun-Xue PENG, Yuan LIU, Chen-Ye WANG, Duo WANG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (9): 1233-1244.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.220395
Abstract335)   HTML7)    PDF (2049KB)(485)      

Glyphosate, also known as N-(methyl phosphate)-glycine, is an organophosphorus pesticide with appreciable herbicidal activity. During its production process, a waste stream composed of complex components (glyphosate wastewater) is produced with the feature of abundant organic matter and high salinity, which obstructs the harmless treatment and resource utilization of glyphosate wastewater. In this paper, the principle and performance of several methods to treat glyphosate wastewater, such as incineration, advanced oxidation, adsorption, chemical precipitation, and membrane separation technology, are introduced, and their advantages and disadvantages are summarized. Incineration, advanced oxidation technology and biochemical treatment of glyphosate wastewater have low selectivity, which is not conducive to the resource utilization of glyphosate wastewater. In view of limited capacity of adsorption, developing the adsorbents possessing large adsorption capacity is urgently needed for the adsorption method in the industrial application of glyphosate waste treatment. chemical precipitation method exhibits excellent separation performance for the phosphate components even in the severe environment of high salt and high COD, whereas it produces a considerable amount of sludge with complex composition. Membrane separation method has been extensively applied to remove impurities in the waste stream and effectively recover valuable compositions, whereas the mere use of membrane technology could not meet the treatment demand due to the complexity of glyphosate wastewater. In this regard, new types of membrane technologies, such as liquid membrane separation and polymer inclusion membrane technology, have been developed. In terms of a variety of advantages including appreciable stability, longlifespan, easy operation and small footprint, the newly developed membrane separation technologies exhibit their prospectsingreen and economic treatment oforganic wastewater containing high salt and recycling of valuable composition.

Research Progress of Cobalt Phosphide Heterojunction Catalysts for Electrolytic Hydrogen Evolution Reaction
Wei WANG, Jia-Yuan LI
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (8): 1175-1186.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230135
Abstract311)   HTML28)    PDF (6044KB)(426)      

Hydrogen (H2), a renewable green energy source, has been widely focused on tackling environmental issues and fossil energy shortages. The development of low-cost, highly efficient and stable electrocatalysts towards hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is one of the major challenges facing the large-scale utilization of hydrogen. Cobalt phosphide (CoP) has been widely studied in the field of electrocatalytic HER due to its metal-like properties and corrosion resistance in acid and alkali electrolytes. This review firstly elaborates the major advantages and challenges for CoP heterojunction as electrocatalyst for HER. Next, the different effects of the CoP heterojunction on HER are discussed. Finally, the prospects of CoP heterojunction for HER electrocatalysis are summarized and prospected.

Research Progress in Regulation Strategy of Transition Metal Phosphate Catalyst for Electrochemical Water Splitting
Ying-Hua GUO, Shun-Fa ZHOU, Jing LI, Wei-Wei CAI
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (8): 1094-1108.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230108
Abstract306)   HTML9)    PDF (4218KB)(667)      

Transition metal phosphate has attracted the attention of researchers in the field of electrolytic water because of its advantages of safety, cleanliness, low cost and high efficiency. Phosphate groups in phosphate have unique atomic geometric structure, strong coordination and various orientations, which are beneficial to stabilize the middle valence state of transition metals and accelerate proton conduction rate. However, its poor conductivity and low porosity have prompted researchers to explore and design more efficient transition metal phosphate electrocatalysts. Although researchers have invested a lot of time and energy, there are still many problems to be solved in the efficient development and utilization of transition metal phosphate electrocatalysts. In this paper, combined with the latest research progress of transition metal phosphate electrocatalysts, the development and design strategies of phosphate by researchers in recent years are introduced from the aspects of morphology control, defect engineering and interface engineering. At the same time, the opportunities and challenges faced by this kind of catalyst in the future material field are discussed from the aspects of scientific research and practical application.

Research Progress of Raman Spectroscopy Technique in Energy Storage Mechanism of Rechargeable Aluminum-Ion Batteries
Cheng-Yuan LIU, Jiang-Yu YU, Feng-Cui LI, Zhi-Wei LIU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (10): 1347-1358.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230065
Abstract284)   HTML17)    PDF (4524KB)(312)      

Raman spectroscopy is a non-destructive analytical technique that provides detailed information on the chemical structure and molecular interactions of a sample. Insitu spectroelectrochemistry combined by spectroscopy and conventional electrochemical methods is a powerful technique for dynamically detecting the structure and phase composition of electrode materials. It has broad application prospects in energy storage and provides information on the micro-structure at the electrode interface. Raman spectroscopy can effectively characterize the change of various cathodic materials and complex ions in aluminum chloride-based electrolytes of rechargeable aluminum-ion batteries (AIBs) during the charging and discharging processes in situ. Combined with characterization techniques, such as XRD and XPS, Raman spectroscopy can effectively reveal the energy storage mechanism of rechargeable aluminum-ion batteries, including the study of electrolytes and electrode materials and insitu monitoring of electrode surface reactions. The study of the nature of electrode materials and interface structures can guide the optimal design of battery materials and microstructures, and the in-situ exploring of electrode surface reactions can help to conduct an in-depth study of the mechanism of electrode interface reactions for guiding the structural optimization of cathode materials and promoting the development of rechargeable aluminum-ion batteries.

Research Progress of Non-Pt-Based Catalysts in Cathode Oxygen Reduction Reaction of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
Yi-Ning DONG, He LI, Xue GONG, Ce HAN, Ping SONG, Wei-Lin XU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (8): 1077-1093.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230075
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With the increasing demand for green and efficient energy storage devices, advanced technologies for clean energy conversion have attracted close attention from researchers. Fuel cells with environmental friendliness and high energy conversion efficiency are promising alternatives to traditional energy sources. However, Pt catalysts with high commercialization degrees in the industrial catalysis field have some problems, such as high cost, poor stability and weak anti-toxicity ability, which limits the further development of fuel cells. The development of non-Pt oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts with abundant reserves, low cost and excellent performance is an effective way to improve the efficiency of fuel cells. In this paper, based on the research results at home and abroad in recent years, various types of non-Pt system ORR catalysts, including non-precious metal and non-metal catalysts, are systematically introduced. The advantages, disadvantages and modification strategies of various catalysts are summarized, and challenges and prospects for the development of ORR electrocatalysts are put forward.

Research Progress on Rare Earth Element Modified V-Based Solid Solution Hydrogen Storage Alloys
Quan-Bing REN, Ming ZHONG, Bo ZHENG, Lan FENG, Nan DING, Dong-Ming YIN, Yong CHENG, Li-Min WANG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (12): 1601-1612.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230201
Abstract264)   HTML16)    PDF (3798KB)(261)      

V-based solid solution hydrogen storage alloys possess BCC structures and have the weight hydrogen storage capacity of above 3.8% and the charge/discharge capacity of 1052 mA·h/g, which is superior to series alloys such as AB2 type and AB5 type. They exhibit high hydrogen solubility and diffusion coefficients at ambient temperature and pressure, therefore, and have a broad application prospect in the field of hydrogen storage and transport system as well as hydrogen energy supply. However, V-based solid solution alloys suffer from difficult activation, harsh hydrogen release conditions, short cycle life and oxygen sensitivity and oxidation. Studies have shown that rare earths have a positive effect on modifying various solid-state hydrogen storage materials. The inclusion of rare earth elements in V-based solid solution alloys through elemental substitution or doping produces a vigorously active second phase of rare earths or rare earth oxides, substantially enhancing the material's capacity for hydrogen absorption and desorption, cycling durability, and anti-toxicity characteristics. Simultaneously, it decreases the oxygen content and enhances the activity properties of materials. In terms of electrochemical performance, the addition of rare earth elements can significantly improve the cycle stability, corrosion resistance and high rate discharge performance of the alloy electrode. Therefore, rare earth element substitution is a well-established method for achieving practical applications of V-based solid solution hydrogen storage materials. This report presents the recent research status of rare earth-modified V-based solid solution hydrogen storage alloys, with a focus on summarizing the rare earth elements' mechanism of action and providing an outlook for future key research directions.

Research Progress in Design and Application of Transition Metal Electrode for Capacitive Deionization
Si-Yang XING, Fei YU, Jie MA
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (9): 1215-1232.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230142
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Capacitive deionization (CDI), an emerging method for water desalination and ion separation, has received much attention due to its advantages of high ion selectivity, high water recovery and low energy consumption. Compared with the traditional carbon electrodes, the emerging Faraday electrode offers a unique opportunity to make the desalination performance of CDI significantly improved through the Faraday reaction of ion capture. Transition metal-based electrodes have received much attention in the field of CDI electrode design due to their highly reversible Faraday response, relatively high conductivity, and excellent theoretical pseudocapacitance values. In this paper, we systematically summarize and sort out the material classification of transition metal-based electrodes in CDI applications, and summarize the modification engineering performed for their intrinsic defects, mainly including conductive material coupling, functional architecture engineering and defect engineering, etc., and summarize their performance in CDI applications; in addition, the specific applications of transition metal-based electrodes in CDI are particularly introduced in terms of ion selective separation, metal ion removal and nutrient element recovery. Finally, the paper also outlines the remaining challenges and research directions to provide guidance for future development and research of transition metal chemical substance electrodes.

Preface to Special Issue “Hydrogen Energy and Fuel Cells”
Jun-Jie GE
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (8): 1061-1062.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230213
Abstract261)   HTML26)    PDF (238KB)(241)      
Research Progress of Rubber and Plastic Materials for Athletic Shoes
San-Rong LIU, Chao LIU, Qing-Bo ZHAO, Hong-Fu ZHAO, Ji-Fu BI
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (10): 1376-1395.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230074
Abstract237)   HTML13)    PDF (3641KB)(329)      

Rubber and plastic materials are commonly used in the manufacturing of athletic shoes. This paper summarizes the basic properties of natural rubber, styrene butadiene rubber, nitrile rubber, neoprene rubber, butadiene rubber, recycled rubber, polyvinyl chloride, polyolefin elastomer, styrene-butadiene-styrene elastomer, vinyl acetate copolymer, polyurethane, block polyetheramide resin and other materials in the manufacturing process of athletic shoes. The research progress of related rubber and plastic materials in recent years is reviewed. It is pointed out that the rubber and plastic materials for athletic shoes will be developed towards lightweight, functionality, intelligence and environmental-benign in the future.

Research Progress on Rare Earth-Based Oxide Memristor
Wang SU, Quan-Li HU, Jing-Hai LIU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (11): 1457-1474.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230106
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Memristor is a basic component of circuit that associates charge with magnetic flux. It is the same as resistance in dimension, which shows nonlinear resistance switching behavior with voltage and current. As a new type of nonvolatile memory devices, memristor has the advantages of simple structure, high storage density, and simulation of biological synapses. Because of its unique :“memory characteristics”, memristor has been widely studied in the fields of resistive memory devices, neural network, nonlinear computing circuit design and so on. Rare earth oxide-based memristors have been widely researched owing to the stable performance and multiple application prospects. However, there is no comprehensive summary of rare earth oxide-based materials, especially heavy rare earth elements. Therefore, this paper discusses the structure, composition, and resistive switching mechanism of the memristor. Secondly, it systematically reviews the key work of the application of each rare earth element oxide and rare earth doped oxide memristor in resistive memory, artificial neural network, and other aspects, from Y element to Lu element. The performances of rare earth based memristor with different device structures are summarized. Finally, the challenges of the rare earth based memristor are analyzed, the current feasible methods are briefly described, the advantages and disadvantages of rare earth based oxide memristor are summarized, and the development trend and application potential are forecasted.

Terpolymerization of Ethylene, Cyclic Olefin and 1-Octene Catalyzed by Rare Earth Complexes
Lin-Feng WANG, Hui TIAN, Guang-Bi GONG, Chun-Ji WU, Bao-Li WANG, Dong-Mei CUI
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (10): 1396-1404.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230100
Abstract233)   HTML17)    PDF (1343KB)(224)      

Cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) is produced through the copolymerization of ethylene and cyclic olefins, and has been used for the manufacturing of optical devices and diagnostic containers due to its high transparency and excellent water vapor barrier. However, COC with high glass-transition temperature usually needs high cycloolefin insertion in copolymer and has increased brittleness, which has significantly hampered its many end uses. The introduction of α-olefin into ethylene/cycloolefin binary copolymers that have been extensively studied is expected to expand the application of cyclic olefin copolymers. In this paper, we report the terpolymerization of ethylene/norbornene/1-octene and ethylene/dicyclopentadiene/1-octene catalyzed by modified cyclopentadienyl scandium complexes 1-3 activated with [Ph3C][B(C6F54] and Al i Bu3 because rare earth catalysts have shown excellent catalytic performance towards olefin polymerization. These rare earth catalysts exhibit high catalytic activities (4.4×105~21.4×105 g/(mol(Sc)·h·bar)). The resultant terpolymers show moderate number average molecular weight (Mn=3.8×104~20.3×104) and relatively narrow polydispersity index (PDI=1.2~2.4). The introduction of 1-octene significantly improves the toughness of ethylene/norbornene/1-octene terpolymers, and the P3 sample (Mn 13.7×104, norbornene 37.1%, 1-octene 11.0%) exhibits 2.0 times higher elongation at break (29.9% vs. 9.9%) than the P1 sample (Mn 14.0×104, NB 42.6%, OCT 6.4%)

Preparation and Characterization of Vinyltri(2-methoxyethoxy)silane Grafted Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer
Chun-Bo WANG, Peng-Bo LIU, Zeng-Wen CAO, Guang-Yuan ZHOU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (10): 1405-1411.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230086
Abstract231)   HTML13)    PDF (1791KB)(166)      

The low hot melt adhesive strength of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) as a matrix resin is mainly due to its low cohesive strength and low polarity on the bonding surface. To address this issue, polar vinyltri(2-methoxyethoxy)silane (VT2MES) is grafted onto the EVA main chain through a melt grafting method, resulting in the synthesis of ethylene vinyl acetate grafted with vinyltri(2-methoxyethoxy)silane (EVA-g-VT2MES). The molecular chain structure of the product is characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), indicating that VT2MES hasbeen successfully grafted onto the EVA molecular chain, with the highest grafting rate of 2.37%. Rheology and melt index tests demonstrate an improvement in the cohesive strength of the grafted product. Adhesive films are prepared from EVA and EVA-g-VT2MES, and steel plates are bonded with them. Compared with EVA, the peel strength of EVA-g-VT2MES is increased by up to 75.21%, confirming that melt grafting of VT2MES onto the EVA molecular chain can significantly improve the adhesion strength of the EVA matrix.

Preparation of Magnesium Aluminum-Type Hydrotalcite Compounds Intercalated with Phosphorus Flame Retardants and Their Flame Retardant Application in Thermoplastic Polyurethane
Jun-Jie SHI, Zhe-Hang SHI, Hong-Zhou LI
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (9): 1288-1301.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230044
Abstract231)   HTML14)    PDF (6527KB)(190)      

Three phosphorus flame retardants 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphafi-10-oxide (DOPO), ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and melamine polyphosphate (MPP) are intercalated into magnesium-aluminium type hydrotalcite (MAH) sheets by direct solvent-free preparation method, and three MAH compounds containing phosphorus flame retardants (DOPO-MAH, APP-MAH and MPP-MAH) are obtained. The three MAH compounds are added into thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) to obtain their composites by hot-pressing. The compounds are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and their composites are characterized via cone calorimetry. The results show that the dispersion of MPP in MAH is poor; the dispersion of DOPO and APP in MAH is better and the distribution of elemental phosphorus is uniform. The initial interlayer spacing of MAH is 4.11 nm. Both APP and MPP are intercalated at 0.5 h, and the final interlayer spacing is reduced to 3.93 and 4.04 nm, respectively. DOPO is completed after 0.5 h, and the interlayer spacing of the intercalated MAH is smaller, 3.86 nm. Compared with composites made from physical mixtures, the peak heat release rate of (DOPO-MAH-6h)/TPU and (APP-MAH-6h)/TPU is decreased from 669.3 kW/m2 to 573.9 kW/m2 and from 657.7 kW/m2 to 405.9 kW/m2. (MPP-MAH-6h)/TPU have no difference with (MPP+MAH)/TPU in peak heat release rate. Compared to the peak heat release rate of TPU, 1236.6 kW/m2, the peak heat release rate of (DOPO-MAH-6h)/TPU, (APP-MAH-6h)/TPU and (MPP-MAH-6h)/TPU was reduced by 53%, 67% and 57%, respectively. The results indicate that DOPO-MAH, APP-MAH and MPP-MAH can be used to improve the flame retardant properties of TPU, however, DOPO-MAH and APP-MAH have better prospects for flame retardant applications in TPU.

Nickel-Nitrogen-Doped Graphdiyne as an Efficient Catalyst for Oxygen Reduction
Lian-Cheng HUI, Jian-Xing ZHUANG, Shun XIAO, Mei-Ping LI, Meng-Yuan JIN, Qing LYU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (8): 1205-1213.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230120
Abstract227)   HTML6)    PDF (4751KB)(330)      

Oxygen reduction reaction is a crucial process for fuel cells. Conventional oxygen reduction catalysts are the precious metal platinum, but given the high cost of platinum, researchers want to find a low-cost alternative catalyst that is cheaper and has the equivalent catalytic activity to platinum. In previous studies, iron-nitrogen-doped graphdiyne and cobalt-nitrogen-doped graphdiyne have been studied, and they all show efficient oxygen reduction reaction activity, while nickel, with similar electronic structure with iron and cobalt, has not been studied. Therefore, in this work we design and synthesize various nickel-nitrogen-doped graphdiyne electrocatalysts using hydrogen as a substitute for graphiyne, and conduct redox electrochemical tests. The nickel-nitrogen-doped graphdiyne catalyst containing 2% nickel and melamine shows the best electrocatalytic performance for oxygen reduction. We conduct a series of physical characterizations for the catalysts: X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) to further analyze their structure and morphology. It can be seen from the physical characterization and electrochemical tests that nitrogen atoms are the key to construct the catalytic active site, and nickel atoms play a vital role in improving the performance of the catalysts. With the synergistic effect of nitrogen and nickel, the nickel nitrogen-doped graphdiyne catalyst shows excellent catalytic performance, which makes it have a good application prospect.

Research Progress on Intermetallic Compound Electrocatalysts Applied in the Interconversion Between Hydrogen and Electric Power
Jin-Hui LIANG, Le-Cheng LIANG, Zhi-Ming CUI
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (8): 1140-1157.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230130
Abstract225)   HTML6)    PDF (9078KB)(164)      

The huge importance of sustainable energy makes the research of the green and environmental hydrogen energy active in the world. Energy conversion and storage technologies (such as fuel cells or water electrolysis) are capable of readily promoting the interconversion between hydrogen and electric power, for which the development of efficient and stable electrocatalysts is prerequisite. Ordered intermetallic compounds are considered as superior electrocatalysts for energy conversion storage technologies and ideal models for studying the relationship between catalytic activity and structure due to uniform distribution of active sites on surface, well-defined stoichiometry and the better control of the local geometry and electronic structure of metal atoms, compared to disordered alloys as their counterparts. In this review, the challenges of catalysts with regard to hydrogen-electric conversion and the advantages of intermetallic compounds in electrocatalysis are firstly introduced. Secondly, research progress on intermetallic compounds electrocatalysts applied in the interconversion between hydrogen and electric power is mainly discussed from the perspective of activity and stability. Finally, the future development prospects of intermetallic electrocatalysts are summarized and prospected.

Research Progress in Preparation and Application of Precious Metal Ion-Imprinted Polymers
Yang PAN, Hui-Ling LU, Hao LI, Jian-Ming PAN
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (10): 1359-1375.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230068
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Due to excellent physical and chemical properties, precious metals are widely used in various fields of national economy and national defense construction, and are extremely important economic and strategic resources. In recent years, due to the rapid growth in the demand for rare and precious metals, the contradiction between supply and demand has become increasingly serious. Therefore, it is very important to selective recovery of precious metals from secondary resources such as electronic waste with high precious metal content. Ion-imprinted polymers (IIPs) are widely used in solid phase extraction, preconcentration, water treatment, membrane separation and electrochemical sensors due to the advantages of simple preparation, cavity fixation, structural stability, good environmental adaptability, high regeneration capacity and selectivity for template ions. In this paper, the research progress of ion imprinting technology in the recovery of precious metals at home and abroad in recent years is reviewed, the preparation process and its application are introduced, and the current problems and future development directions of precious metal ion imprinting technology are analyzed and prospected.

Preparation and Properties of Mussel-Inspired Antibacterial Bone Adhesive
Jia-Hui LIU, Bai-Chao AN, Qiu-Yan YAN, Shi-Fang LUAN
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (9): 1258-1266.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230045
Abstract216)   HTML15)    PDF (4768KB)(126)      

As one of the most commonly occurred trauma conditions, bone fractures have harmed the health of tens of millions of people. Bone adhesives have attracted wide attention due to the excellent adhesive property, however, poor biocompatibility may become a barrier hindering fracture healing, which restricts the wide use of bone adhesives. Inspired by mussel, a novel antibacterial bone adhesive is fabricated by blending the oxidized hyaluronic acid with tannic (TA) and poly-ε-lysine (PL). Due to the electrostatic interaction and dynamic covalent bond, the bone adhesive exhibits prominent adhesive, self-healing and injectable prosperities, which could meet the different needs of clinical applications. The great cytocompatibility of the adhesive could offer an environment suitable for bone tissue healing. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of the adhesive that provided by TA could decrease the risk of bacterial infection at the site of fracture.

Research Progress of Biomass-Based Hard Carbon Anodes for Sodium-Ion Storage
Rui-Yao WU, Dan-Dan OUYANG, Li-Li AI, An-Jie LIU, Hui ZHU, Xiao-Xin GAO, Jiao YIN
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2024, 41 (4): 496-511.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230364
Abstract215)   HTML12)    PDF (1680KB)(135)      

Biomass-derived hard carbon has advantages of abundant raw-material resources, sustainability, low cost, and high sodium storage capacity, making it an ideal anode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). The microstructure of biomass-derived hard carbon materials is one of the key factors to influence the sodium-ion storage performance. This review summarizes the research status on the mechanism of biomass-derived hard carbon anodes for sodium-ion storage. Preparation methods for the high-performance biomass-derived hard carbon anodes were summarized from the point of views of biomass sources. The relationship between structural regulation and the sodium-ion storage enhancement was discussed. Last but not the least, future research directions were prospected for developing high-performance biomass-derived hard carbon anodes for SIBs.

High Temperature Resistant Epoxy Resin-Based Composites by Casting Process for Neutron Shielding
Zhi-Peng HAN, Chong QIN, Jin-Xiang ZHOU, Ming YU, Zhao-Bin CHEN
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (10): 1420-1429.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230164
Abstract199)   HTML1)    PDF (3008KB)(130)      

Based on the proposed concept of “self-driven gradient temperature rising”, the epoxy resin-based composites with high temperature resistance for neutron shielding are developed, which is realized by casting and curing at room temperature. The matrix of the composite is determined by the reaction kinetics study as a mixture of mixed multifunctional glycidylamine epoxy resins and mixed modified phenolic amine curing agents. Through comprehensive studies on the matching between rigid and flexible groups in the molecular structure of resins and curing agents, heat transfer in complex phases, and screening of functional fillers, the composites for neutron shielding with excellent physical and mechanical properties are obtained, of which the glass transition temperature (Tg) is higher than 150 ℃, the load heat deformation temperature is higher than 150 ℃, the fast neutron shielding coefficient (252 Cf, 40 mm) is higher than 2.5, and the thermal neutron shielding rate (252Cf, 40 mm) is higher than 99.9%. This kind of high temperature resistant epoxy resin-based composites shows great potentials in the field of secondary shielding of nuclear radiation under harsh service conditions in real applications.

Research Progress of Functional Masks Amid the Normalization of the COVID-19 Pandemic
Shu-Min CHEN, Zi-Quan LYU, Xuan ZOU, Shui-Qing GUI, Xue-Mei LU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (11): 1504-1517.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230071
Abstract193)   HTML7)    PDF (2887KB)(128)      

Wearing masks has been widely recommended as a way to prevent respiratory diseases amid the normalization of the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a demand for masks that goes beyond simply being filters for aerosols containing microbes, and it can fulfill more needs such as antimicrobial, antiviral, self-cleaning and detection. Masks with antibacterial and antiviral functions can effectively kill pathogens trapped in the filter layer of masks and reduce sources of pollution and infection. Masks with self-cleaning function can realize the recycling of masks, alleviate environmental pollution and resource waste. Masks with self-detection function can realize instant visual detection of pathogens and solve the discomfort caused by routine sampling. Various functional modifications improve the mask's performance, such as metal nanoparticles and herbal extracts to inactivate pathogens. Carbon-based nanoparticles make masks photothermal and superhydrophobic to prolong the life of masks. Metal nanoparticles can be used for pathogen detection by quenching or enhancing their fluorescence. This paper reviews the recent progress in the development and functionalization of functional masks with the advancement of material science in the last three years and the development direction of multifunctional masks is forecasted.

Research Progress in Designing Artificial Water Channels Based on Aquaporin
Dao-Zhen CHENG, Zhen-Ran WANG, Hua-Yuan SHANGGUAN
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (9): 1245-1257.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230025
Abstract191)   HTML8)    PDF (3712KB)(337)      

Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane proteins that mediate the transport of water molecules with high selectivity and permeability to water molecules. Artificial water channels are generally assembled from various organic or inorganic materials (such as carbon materials, organic compounds, and peptides) and designed to mimic the structure and function of natural aquaporins. This paper describes the types, structures and their permeation mechanisms of natural, bio-inspired and synthetic water channels, and reviews and compares the research progress of artificial water channels such as single molecules, supramolecules and carbon nanomaterials over the last two decades. This paper elaborates on the influence of different artificial water channel material properties on the structure and function, and focuses on the shortcomings of artificial water channels and the challenges of developing new artificial water channels, and finally looks into the future prospects of artificial water channels.

Synthesis and Multi-Mode Luminescence Properties of Cs 2ZnCl 4∶Ce 3+,Mn 2+
Tian-Cheng ZHENG, Yue LI, Yu-Ling LIU, Yong-Bo MA, Xi-Yan LI
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (12): 1613-1622.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230189
Abstract186)   HTML20)    PDF (4324KB)(105)      

In recent years, low-dimensional lead-free metal halides have attracted extensive attention due to their unique optical properties, low toxicity and excellent environmental stability. In this paper, Cs2ZnCl4∶Ce3+, Cs2ZnCl4∶Mn2+ and Cs2ZnCl4∶Ce3+,Mn2+ microcrystals are prepared by hydrothermal method. The phase and luminescence characteristics of the microcrystals are characterized by X-ray diffractometer and fluorescence spectrometer. In a series of Ce3+ ions doped and Ce3+ and Mn2+ ions co-doped Cs2ZnCl4 microcrystals, Ce3+ ions emit at 254 nm in the ultraviolet region, and its emission peak is at 350 nm, corresponding to the 4f-5d transition of Ce3+ ions. In Cs2ZnCl4 microcrystals doped with Mn2+ ions and Ce3+ and Mn2+ ions, Mn2+ ions all exhibit green light emission in the visible region at 361 nm, and the emission peak is located at 530 nm, which corresponds to the 4T16A1 transition of Mn2+ ions in tetrahedral environment. In Cs2ZnCl4 microcrystals doped with Ce3+ and Mn2+ ions, the emission spectra of Ce3+ and Mn2+ ions only have their respective luminescence peaks corresponding to their respective excitation peaks, which is a phenomenon of excitation wavelength dependence. In addition, the compound can be applied to fluorescence anti-counterfeiting and information encryption applications in the future because of its obvious excitation wavelength dependence.

Frontier Applications of Polymer-Metal Composites
Meng-Fei ZHANG, Jiu-Yang ZHANG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (11): 1581-1586.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230039
Abstract185)   HTML8)    PDF (1083KB)(168)      

Polymer-metal composites are functional materials with unique physical properties, combining the high conductivity and thermal conductivity of metals with the convenient processability of polymers. In recent years, polymer-metal composites have become a hot topic at the forefront of technology. These composite materials have not only achieved technological breakthroughs in high-precision packaging for chip stacking, integrated circuits, and system integration but have also provided new insights for the development of medical sensing devices, flexible displays, and soft robotics. This article provides a systematic introduction to polymer-metal composites, summarizing their research status in the fields of electronic packaging, flexible displays, medical sensing, and electromagnetic shielding, including their working performance, application overview, and market analysis.

Preparation and Properties of Organic Zirconium Crosslinked Konjac Glucomannan Gel
Qi-Yun JIANG, Jun-Jie CHEN, Hao CHEN, Zhi-Qiang WU, Chun-Hui SHEN, Shan-Jun GAO
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (10): 1437-1447.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230072
Abstract185)   HTML10)    PDF (5243KB)(128)      

Two n-butanol zirconium crosslinkers were prepared using n-butanol zirconium as the central ionic reagent and 3-amino-1,2-propanediol (APG) and N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) as the organic ligands, respectively. A series of water-based fracturing fluids were prepared with konjac glucomannan (KGM) solution and n-butanol zirconium crosslinker The morphology, structure and properties of fracturing fluid are systematically characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), high resolution mass spectrometer (HRMS), rheometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)?, and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The reaction pathway of zirconate and KGM crosslinking is discussed. The sol-gel transition point is accurately determined by Winter-Chambon formula. The effects of reactant concentration and ligand species on storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G″), and sol-gel transition time (tcr) are studied. It is found that compared with APG ligand, the organozirconium/KGM gel system with MDEA as ligand have better delayed cross-linking performance, better temperature and shear resistance. Its tcr shows a trend of first decreasing and then increasing with the increase of KGM concentration, and a decreasing trend with the increase of ligand concentration and crosslinking agent concentration. When the concentration of KGM solution is controlled at 4.0 g/L, the delay time of gel system can be adjusted within 7~45 min at room temperature, the sol-gel transition temperature (Tsol-gel) is 71.4 ℃, and its temperature resistance can reach 120 ℃. The viscosity of 171 mPa·s is maintained at a shear rate of 170 s-1. The organic zirconium crosslinked KGM gel system provides a useful reference for the research and application in the field of petroleum exploitation.

Static Crystallization and Shear Induced Crystallization of the Poly( L-lactic acid) Telechelic Ionomer
Fan LIU, Shao-Yong HUANG, Quan CHEN
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (10): 1412-1419.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230107
Abstract185)   HTML2)    PDF (1459KB)(282)      

The telechelic ionomer tends to form a relatively uniform reversible network and has attracted the attention of many polymer researchers who are seeking high-performance materials. We synthesize the slightly entangled poly(L-lactic acid) telechelic ionomer based on sodium sulfonate groups. The telechelic samples exhibit extremely slow crystallization kinetics below the melting temperature (Tm) and above the glass transition temperature (Tg), which enables us to examine the linear viscoelasticity of the ionomer melt sample therein. The ionic aggregates form physical crosslinks, leading to a wide plateau regime and delayed terminal relaxation. The application of shear flow with Weissenberg number >1 (at 85 ℃) strongly accelerates the crystallization, leading to the strong shear thickening behavior. The critical work (Wcrit) obtained in the case that the thickening occurs after achieving the steady state is higher than that in the opposite case, where the thickening occurs before achieving the steady state, suggesting that the continuous dissociation and association (during the steady state) dissipate a fraction of energy that does not contribute to the flow-induced crystallization.

Synthesis, Photophysical Properties, Theoretical Calculation and Cell Imaging of a Tetraphenylethene Imidazole Compound with Methoxy Group
Da-Wei TONG, Ming KONG, Yu-Bin XIANG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (9): 1322-1329.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230019
Abstract184)   HTML10)    PDF (2652KB)(106)      

A titled tetraphenylethene imidazole compound with methoxy group named 4,5-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(4-(1,2,2-triphenylvinyl)phenyl)-1H-imidazole(BTI) is synthesized by one step. The target BTI is fully characterized by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. The single crystal structure of BTI is obtained by evaporation of the mother solutions. The photophysical properties of BTI are studied by UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence emission spectrum. By means of theoretical calculation, the excited state properties of BTI are elaborated. Finally, the application of BTI in cell imaging is studied. The results show that BTI exhibits typical aggregation-induced emission (AIE) properties with intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) character, and the experimental spectral data agree well with the theoretical calculation results. The cell imaging study shows that BTI can well penetrate the HepG2 cell membrane and perform one-and two-photon excitated confocal fluorescence imaging.

Fabrication of BiOX-Based Photocatalysts and Their Applications in Energy Conversion
Feng WEI, Hai-Dong XING, Zi-Yuan XIU, De-Feng XING, Xiao-Jun HAN
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (11): 1518-1530.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230158
Abstract180)   HTML7)    PDF (2148KB)(289)      

With the rapid development of our society, the excessive consumption of traditional petrochemical resource not only results in energy crisis, but also causes environmental pollution. In recent years, researchers are devoting themselves to the development of novel, clean and carbon-neutral energy with high efficiency. The energy conversion and storage from low-density solar energy to high-density chemical energy by photocatalysis technology show great potential to solve the aforementioned energy shortage and environmental pollution issues. Among all the photocatalysts, BiOX with typical layer structures, proper bandgap positions and excellent light response is considered as a promising photocatalyst. However, the photocatalytic performance based on BiOX is still far from satisfaction. Therefore, the development of its modification strategies is becoming a research hotspot. In this review, with BiOX as the research objective, the modification strategies based on its structural characteristics to promote the photocatalytic properties are summarized, including intrinsic modification (morphology regulation, element doping, and defect introduction) and heterojunction construction. The research progress of BiOX-based photocatalysts in energy conversion field (photocatalytic water splitting for H2 production, photocatalytic CO2 reduction and NH3 photosynthesis) is presented. The modification of BiOX can alter the migration direction of photocarriers and promote their separation. Meanwhile, the produced active sites during the modification are provided as the precondition to enhance the photocatalytic performance. Finally, the research challenge and development trends of BiOX-based photocatalysts are proposed.

Graphene Oxide Characterization Based on Bibliometrics
Fang XIA, Zi-Ying XU, He WANG, Yu-Fang HE
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (10): 1448-1455.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230146
Abstract179)   HTML2)    PDF (2985KB)(117)      

This paper aimed to conduct systematic bibliometric and visual analysis of graphene oxide(GO) status, and to explore the development status, research hotspots and frontier trends. CNKI database was used as the data source to retrieve the literature related to GO, and the bibliometric method was used for statistical analysis. A total of 2728 articles were included in this study, and the relevant studies showed a trend of “rising-slow decline”. The institutions with relatively high literature output are science and engineering colleges, indicating that the degree of specialization and intensification in this research field is relatively high. The keywords formed five categories, which were clustered by basic research on GO, preparation and reduction of GO, photocatalytic performance, electrochemical performance and mechanical properties, and made full use of GO characteristic analysis to describe the research hotspots in this field. The frontiers of GO research include: finding more ways to synthesize polymers and GO to improve the electrochemical performance of composites, GO composites adsorbing pollutants for sewage treatment, and using electrochemical reduction to prepare graphene using GO. GO has been widely used and has excellent performance in recent years, which is worthy of further exploration by relevant researchers to expand its application in the field of environment and chemistry.

Polyallylamine Modified Sulfonic Acid Catalyst Catalyse Synthesis of n-Butyl Benzoate
Ya-Zhou YU, Xian-Liang ZHAO, Ning-Ning TAN, Yang XIAO, Yong-Jun ZHANG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (10): 1430-1436.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230105
Abstract177)   HTML7)    PDF (1811KB)(162)      

Developing polymer carrier catalysts is an important topic for effectively addressing catalyst utilization and green synthetic chemistry. As a monomer, allylamine hydrochloride is polymerized with initiation to obtain polyallylamine which is cross-linked with epichlorohydrin to obtain cross-linked polyallylamine hydrochloride. Using cross-linked polyallylamine as a carrier, a solid acid catalyst with high loading is prepared by reacting with chlorosulfonic acid.The cross-linked polyallylamine sulfonic acid catalyst is stable up to 150 ℃, indicating its excellent thermal stability. This catalyst is used to catalyze the reaction of benzoic acid and n-butanol to produce n-butyl benzoate. The optimal reaction conditions are: the molar ratio of n-butanol to benzoic acid of 2∶1, the catalyst dosage of 20 g/mol BA, reaction temperature of 120 ℃ and reaction time of 6 h. The esterification rate of benzoic acid is 95%. This catalyst can be reused up to 4 times while maintaining high catalytic performance.

Enhancing Catalytic Activity of Ru/CeO 2 in Terephthalic Acid Hydro-Conversion via Reduction Pre-Treatment of CeO 2 Support
Yu-Xuan PENG, Xiao WANG, Hong-Yan JI, Xue-Ting WU, Shu-Yan SONG, Hong-Jie ZHANG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (11): 1494-1503.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230132
Abstract174)   HTML8)    PDF (2299KB)(187)      

Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics can be recovered into terephthalic acid (PTA) and ethylene glycol monomers through hydrolysis reactions, and the comprehensive utilization of terephthalic acid has certain research significance. In this paper, Ru/CeO2 catalyzed PTA hydro-conversion reaction is researched. Attempts of generating more oxygen vacancies and Lewis acid sites on Ru/CeO2 by high-temperature reduction in H2 are made for boosting the catalytic activity in PTA hydro-conversion. Ru-based catalysts with pre-reduced CeO2 support exhibits significant enhanced activity in PTA hydro-conversion, as the PTA conversion is raised by 179%~300% under 200~250℃. The enhancement in catalytic activity by reduction pretreatment of CeO2 support is attributed to enhanced adsorption of PTA reactant due to newly generated Lewis acid sites. This work provides useful insights for rational design and precise surface regulation for Ce-based heterogeneous catalysts.

Preparation and Characterization of Poly(ethylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate)/TiO 2 Nanoparticles/ Diatomaceous Earth Composites
Yu-Xuan LI, Yu-Hao ZHAO, Yu-Ze DAI, Min JIANG, Ying ZHANG, Guang-Yuan ZHOU
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (9): 1277-1287.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230079
Abstract171)   HTML8)    PDF (2372KB)(125)      

A series of novel PEF/TiO2/diatomaceous earth (DE) composites are prepared from dimethyl 2,?5-furandicarboxylate (DMFD), ethylene glycol (EG), pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA), DE and TiO2 nanoparticles via in-situ polycondensation. And their structure, thermal properties, mechanical properties, gas permeability properties and ultraviolet shielding properties are characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer (NMR), fourier transform attenuated total reflection infrared spectrometer (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and other technical means. The results show that the composites are successfully prepared, and nano-TiO2 and DE are both physically doped. The DE particles are uniformly dispersed within PEF. All polyester powders have an amorphous aggregate structure. Compared with PEF, the temperature at 5% mass loss (Td,5%) and the maximum mass loss rate (Tdmax) of PEF/TiO2/DE composites are increased by 12.1 and 8.4 ℃, respectively. The tensile modulus and impact strength of PEF/TiO2/DE composites reach 2657 MPa and 3.2×104 J/m2, respectively. The CO2 and O2 permeability of PEF/TiO2/DE composites are regulated by the addition of nano-TiO2 and DE. The CO2 barrier improvement coefficient ( B I F C O 2 ) is increased from 3.02 for PEF/TiO2 to 1.37~4.64, and the O2 barrier improvement coefficient ( B I F C O 2 ) is increased from 1.36 for PEF/TiO2 to 0.7~2.07. In addition, PEF/TiO2 has functional properties such as UV resistance with the addition of nano-TiO2: the UV shielding rate of PEF/TiO2 composites is increased by 85%, from 45.38% of PEF to 83.85% of PEF/TiO2 composite films, and the UV shielding performance of PEF/TiO2/DE composites is greater than 84%.

Preparation and Characterization of Shangkehuangshui/Polyvinyl Alcohol Electrospinning Nanofiber Membranes as Wound Dressing
Kai-Jun LEI, Run-Run QIANG, Huai-Guo LI, Fang-Hao ZHENG, Zi-Xue JIAO, Zong-Liang WANG, Yu WANG, Ming-Feng HE, Pei-Biao ZHANG
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2023, 40 (11): 1539-1549.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230159
Abstract168)   HTML3)    PDF (3846KB)(159)      

Shangkehuangshui is a traditional chinese medicine lotion. At present, gauze impregnated with traditional Chinese medicine Shangkehuangshui is generally used in clinical treatment of wounds, which has short efficacy and needs to change the dressing repeatedly, and gauze is easy to adhere to wounds. Gauze impregnated with Shangkehuangshui cannot preventing water and electrolyte loss while absorbing wound secretions, which limits the application and effect of Shangkehuangshui in traumatology. To solve the above problems, a kind of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) electrospinning nanofiber dressing is prepared by high pressure electrospinning using the superhydrophilic polymer PVA as raw material. Through the characterization and testing of its structure and properties, PVA/HS electrospun fiber film shows great mechanical properties, liquid absorption capacity and drug slow release function. In the test of cytotoxicity, the survival rate of cells in the Shangkehuangshui/PVA electrospinning nanofiber membrane groups are above 75%. Among them, the electrospun fiber membrane with PVA content of 10% and Shangkehuangshui content of 2% has high tensile strength and elastic modulus, and has good ductility and exudate absorption capacity, which can reach more than 8 times of its own weight. In the rat full-layer skin defect repair experiment. The healing speed and healing effect of the wound dressing in this group are significantly better than those in the Shangkehuangshui original medicine group and other low drug content groups. These results indicate that the Shangkehuangshui/PVA electrospinning nanofiber film can be used as a good wound covering, absorbing wound exudation, accelerating skin defect repair, and has a broad prospect in broadening the application form and enhancing the application effect of Shangkehuangshui in traumatology.

Research Progress of Natural Polymer Flocculants with Antibacterial Function
Huai-Li ZHENG, Wei LIU, Man-Li SUN
Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry    2024, 41 (2): 177-189.   DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.230299
Abstract168)   HTML19)    PDF (513KB)(227)      

Bacteria in water will pose a certain threat to the environment and human health, and traditional fungicides may cause secondary pollution and have poor stability and other problems. Seeking more efficient, environmentally friendly and reliable bacterial inactivation methods to gradually replace traditional disinfection methods has become an important research direction in the field of water treatment. In recent years, many academic researchers have actively explored natural polymer flocculants with antibacterial function. These materials are based on natural polymer compounds such as chitosan, starch and lignin, which not only show environment-friendly, widely sourced and renewable characteristics, but also have high modification potential to meet the needs of complex practical applications. This review describes in detail the latest research progress and application status of natural polymer flocculants with antibacterial function. The contents covered include substrates, modification methods, grafted monomers, flocculation properties and flocculation mechanism, antibacterial properties and antibacterial mechanism, etc. In addition, this review looks at future research directions on how to further optimize the performance of these polymer flocculants to meet the increasingly complex water treatment needs, while providing an academic perspective on future research. This series of research work provides profound connotation and theoretical support for further exploring the academic research of natural polymer flocculants with antibacterial function.