Chinese Journal of Applied Chemistry ›› 2022, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (6): 888-899.DOI: 10.19894/j.issn.1000-0518.210211

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Synthesis and Applications of Graphene Quantum Dots Derived from Citric Acid

Qiao-Zhi GUO, Zhen-Hua YANG(), Yue-Xia ZHANG, Ya-Ting MENG, Yu-Juan CAO, Xuan-Sen SUN, Qi-Qi ZHANG, Shao-Min SHUANG, Chuan DONG   

  1. Institute of Environmental Science,Shanxi University,Taiyuan 030006,China
  • Received:2021-04-29 Accepted:2021-08-28 Published:2022-06-01 Online:2022-06-27
  • Contact: Zhen-Hua YANG
  • About
  • Supported by:
    the National Natural Science Foundation of China(91843301);Shanxi Scholarship Council of China(2020?002)


Graphene quantum dots (GODs) are a kind of novel carbon-based zero-dimensional materials, which can be regarded as extremely small graphene fragments. GQDs possess unique 2D structure, quantum confinement effect and edge effect, which is similar to graphene materials. GQDs have many advantages, such as unique photoluminescence property, low toxicity, high fluorescent stability and high biocompatibility, which result in extensive applications of GQDs, including detection, sensing, catalysis, cellular-imaging, drug delivery and pollution control. The synthesis methods of GQDs could be divided into top-down and bottom-up. The mechanism of the top-down method is cutting large-size materials like graphene, graphite and carbon materials into smaller sizes to obtain GQDs, while the mechanism of the bottom-up method is synthesizing GQDs using different precursors through the hydrothermal method or pyrolysis. Citric acid (CA) is a kind of the most popular precursors used in synthesis of GQDs through the bottom-up method. In the recent years, lots of research related to synthesis of GQDs by using CA as precursors are published. In this study, many CA-based synthesis methods of heterogeneous GQDs and their applications are introduced.

Key words: Graphene quantum dots, Citric acid, N-Doping, S-Doping, Nitrogen-doped, Sulfur-doped

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